Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set
(COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset


In cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center (NOAA/CDC), and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NSIDC is distributing an Arctic subset of surface marine data from the Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)in the Long Marine Reports Fixed-Length (LMRF) format.

The original data were obtained from many sources, including merchant vessels, research ships, and moored and drifting buoys. Parameters include: atmospheric pressure, surface pressure, air temperature, sea surface temperature, humidity, water vapor, surface winds, cloud information (amount, height and type), and "present weather." The scientists assembling COADS have attempted to integrate all available digitized, directly sensed surface-marine data sets that would contribute information of reasonable quality. Most of the early data were gathered by ships-of-opportunity. More recent data also come from fixed research vessels, buoys, and other observing devices. Data archived at NSIDC is for the region North of 65 degrees N. for the years 1950-1995. Updates will be made available as they are received at NSIDC.

The COADS LMRF Arctic subset consists of 46 data files (one for each year) which are in LMRF (Long Marine Report Fixed-Length, packed binary format), and has a total volume of approximately 201 MB unix compressed and 632 uncompressed. The data are in the form of individual marine reports with a given latitude and longitude. A UNIX-based Fortran program is distributed with the data files.

The ftp directory contains the Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset data, as well as two informational documents and a UNIX Fortran program. The "lmr" document describes the LMR and LMRF data formats, and contains detailed information on parameters and data sources. The "stat_trim" document describes the trimming (quality control) procedures and flags, and information on the calculation of monthly statistics. These documents were compiled by and are distributed by the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). COADS is the result of a continuing cooperative project between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) -- specifically its Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL), National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES, conducted jointly with the University of Colorado) -- and the National Science Foundation's National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The NOAA portion of COADS is currently supported by the NOAA Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program and the NOAA Environmental Services Data and Information Management (ESDIM) Program.

For additional documents and information on COADS see the following page maintained at NOAA/CDC:

COADS Home Page


Clark, M.P., M.C. Serreze and R.G. Barry, 1996: Characteristics of Arctic Ocean Climate based on COADS data, 1980-1993, Geophysical research Letters, 23(15), 1953-1956

Hahn, C.J., S.G. Warren, and J. London, 1992: The use of COADS ship observations in cloud climatologies. Proceedings of the International COADS Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, 13-15 January 1992. H.F. Diaz, K. Wolter, and S.D. Woodruff, Eds., NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 271-280.

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), 1968: TDF-11 Reference Manual. NCDC, Asheville, NC.

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), 1989a: Marine Data Users' Reference: 1854-1969. NCDC, Asheville, N.C.

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), 1989b: Marine Data Users' Reference: 1970-Current. NCDC, Asheville, N.C.

Petty, G.W., 1995: Frequencies and characteristics of global oceanic precipitation from shipboard present weather reports. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1593-1616.

Warren, S.G., C.J. Hahn, J. London, R.M. Chervin, and R.L. Jenne, 1988: Global Distribution of Total Cloud Cover and Cloud Type Amounts over the Ocean. NCAR Tech. Note TN-317+STR, Boulder, CO, 42 pp. + 170 maps.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 1981a: Commission for Marine Meteorology Abridged Final Report of the Eight Session, Hamburg, 14-25 September 1981, WMO No. 584.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 1981b: Manual on Codes, Volume I, International Codes, WMO No. 306, Ed. 1974, Suppl. No. 7.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization) , 1988: Manual on Codes, Volume I, International Codes, WMO No. 306.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization) , 1993: Commission for Marine Meteorology Abridged Final Report of the Eleventh Session, Lisbon, 19-30 April 1993, WMO No. 792.

Document Information

Document Revision Date: 1998-08-18
Document Review Date: 1998-08
Document ID: nsidc-0057


As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Serreze, M., compiler. 1997. Comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set LMRF arctic subset. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Document Curator: NSIDC Writers
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