The NSIDC Web site and data services are currently having intermittent problems and may be unavailable. We are working to restore these services as soon as possible and apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. Please contact NSIDC User Services for assistance.
Barry, R. G. 1984. Possible carbon dioxide-induced warming effects on the cryosphere. In Climate changes on a yearly to millennial basis. ed. N. A. Morner and W. Karlen, 571-604. Hingham: D. Reidel.
Barry, R. G. 1985. Snow cover, sea ice, and permafrost. In Glaciers, ice sheets, and sea level: Effect of a CO2-induced climatic change, 241-247. Washington: Dept. of Energy.
Benson, C., B. Holmgren, R. Timmer, G. Weller, and S. Parrish. 1975. Observations on the seasonal snow cover and radiation climate at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, during 1972. In Ecological investigations of the tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska. ed. J. Brown, University of Alaska Special Report No. 2, 13-50.
Broccoli, A. 1985. Characteristics of seasonal snow cover as simulated by GFDL climate models. In Glaciological Data Report GD--18, Snow Watch '85, 241-248.
Burke, H. K., C. J. Bowley, and J. C. Barnes. 1981. Comparison of theoretical and actual satellite microwave brightness temperatures to determine snowpack properties. Final Rep. A653-F. Concord: Environ. Res. and Technol. Inc.
Campbell, W. J., and P. Gudmansen. 1981. The application of microwave remote sensing for snow and ice research. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Digest. ed. K. Carver, 951-957.
Cavalieri, D. J. 1988. NASA Sea Ice and Snow Validation Program. NASA Technical Memorandum 100706.
Chandrasekhar, S. 1960. Radiative Transfer. New York: Dover.
Chang, A. T. C., P. Gloersen, T. Schmugge, T. T. Wilheit, and H. J. Zwally. 1976. Microwave emission from snow and glacier ice. J. Glaciol. 16:23.
Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, D. K. Hall, A. Rango, and B. K. Hartline. 1982. Snow water equivalent estimation by microwave radiometry. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 5:259-267.
Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, and D. K. Hall. 1987. Nimbus-07 SMMR derived global snow cover parameters. Ann. Glaciol. 9:39-44.
Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, and D. K. Hall. 1990. Satellite sensor estimates of Northern Hemisphere snow volume. Remote Sensing Letters. International Journal of Remote Sensing 11(1)167-172.
Chang, H. D. 1982. User's Guide for Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Instrument First-Year Antenna Temperature Data Set. Washington: SASC.
Chao, B., W. P. O'Connor, A. T. C. Chang, D. K. Hall, and J. L. Foster. 1987. Snow-load effect on the Earth's rotation and gravitational field, 1979-1985. J. Geophys. Res. 92:9415-9422.
Crane, R. G. 1979. Inventory of snow cover and sea ice data. In Glaciological Data Report GD-7. World Data Center -A for Glaciology, 1-3. Boulder: Univ. of Colo.
Dewey, K., and R. Heim, Jr. 1983. Satellite observations of variations in Southern Hemisphere snow cover. In NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 1, 1-20. Washington: NOAA.
Dickinson, R. E. 1983. Land surface processes and climate surface albedos and energy balance. Advances in Geophysics 25:305-353.
England, A. W. 1975. Thermal microwave emission from a scattering layer. J. Geophys. Res. 80(32):4484-4496.
Foster, J. L. 1989. The significance of the data of snow disappearance on the Arctic tundra as a possible indicator of climate change. Arctic and Alpine Res. 21:1:60-70.
Foster, J. L., M. Owe, and A. Rango. 1983. Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 22:460-469.
Foster, J. L., D. K. Hall, A. T. C. Chang, and A. Rango. 1984. An overview of passive microwave snow research and results. Rev. Geophys. 22:195-208.
Foster, J. L., D. K. Hall, and A. T. C. Chang. 1987. Remote sensing of snow. Eos Trans. AGU 68:681-684.
Foster, J. L., and A. Rango. 1989. Advances in modeling of snowpack processes utilizing remote sensing technology. Geo Journal 19:2:185-192.
Fu, C. C., D. Han, S. T. Kim, and P. Gloersen. 1988. User's guide for the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) CELL-ALL Tape. NASA Reference Publication 1210.
Gloersen, P., and F. T. Barath. 1977. A scanning multichannel microwave radiometer for Nimbus G and Seasat A. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-2:172-178.
Gloersen, P., D. Cavalieri, and H. V. Soule. 1980. An alternate algorithm for correction of the scanning multichannel radiometer polarization radiances using Nimbus-7 observed data. NASA Technical Memorandum 80672.
Goodison, B. E., I. Rubinstein, F. W. Thirkettle, and E. J. Langham. 1986. Determination of snow water equivalent on the Canadian prairies using microwave radiometry. IAHS Publ. 155, 163-173.
Gray, D. M. and D. H. Male, editors. 1981. Handbook of Snow. Principles, Processes, Management and Use. Canada: Pergamon Press.
Hall, D. K., J. L. Foster, and A. T. C. Chang. 1982. Measurement and modeling of microwave emission from forested snowfields in Michigan. Nordic Hydrology 13:129-138.
Hall, D. K., and J. Martinec. 1985. Remote sensing of ice and snow. 189 p. London: Chapman & Hall.
Hall, D. K., A. T. C. Chang, and J. L. Foster. 1986. Detection of the depth-hoar layer in the snowpack of the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska, U.S.A., using satellite data. J. Glaciol. 32:87-94.
Hall, D. K. 1988. Assessment of polar climate change using satellite technology. Review of Geophysics 6:21:26-39.
Hallikainan, M., and P. Jolma. 1987. Development of algorithms to retrieve the water equivalent of snow cover from satellite microwave radiometer data. In Rep. ESA SP-254, 611-616. Zurich: Eur. Space Agen.
Hallikainen, M. T., P. A. Jolma, and J. M. Hgyppa. 1988. Satellite microwave radiometry of forest and surface types in Finland. In IEEE Trans. GRS-26, 622-628.
Hallikainen, M. T. 1984. Retrieval of snow water equivalent from Nimbus-7 SMMR data: Effect of land-cover categories and weather conditions. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-9:372-376.
Han, D. 1981. Offset of polarization rotation for the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). Washington: SASC.
Hansen, J., G. Russell, D. Rind, P. Stone, A Lacis, S. Lebedeff, R. Ruedy, and L. Travis. 1983. Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies. Models I and II, Monthly Weather Review lll:4:609-662.
Jones, E. B. 1983. Snowpack ground-truth manual. NASA Contractor Report 170584.
Kukla, G., R. G. Barry, A. Hecht, and D. Wiesnet. 1985. Snow-Watch '85. In Recommendations, Glaciological Data GD-18, Snow Watch '85, 1-18.
Kunzi, K. F., S. Patil, and H. Rott. 1982. Snow-cover parameters retrieval from Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20:452-467.
Lachenbruch, A. H., and B. V. Marshall. 1986. Changing climate, geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Science 234:689-696.
Lockwood, J. G. 1974. World Climatology. New York: St. Martins Press.
Lydolph, P. E. 1977. Climates of the Soviet Union, world survey of climatology 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Matson, M., C. F. Ropelewski, and M. S. Varnadore. 1986. An Atlas of Satellite-Derived Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Frequency. Washington: Nat'l Weather Serv.
Meier, M. 1984. Contribution of small glaciers to global sea level. Science 226:1418-1421.
Nimbus-7 User's Guide, The. Washington: NASA. 213-245.
Oakes, A., D. Han, H. Kyle, G. Feldman, A Fleig, E. Hurley, and B. Kaufman. 1989. Nimbus-7 Data Product Summary. NASA Reference Publication 1215.
Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. Arctic sea ice 1973-1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations. NASA Spec. Publ. SP-489. 296 p.
Rango, A., A. T. C. Chang, and J. L. Foster. 1979. The utilization of spaceborne microwave radiometers for monitoring snowpack properties. Nord. Hydrol. 10:25-40.
Rango, A., J. Martinec, A. Chang, J. Foster, and V. van Katwijk. 1989. Average areal water equivalent of snow on a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data. In IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 23:6:740-745.
Robock, A. 1980. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice, and surface albedo. Mon. Weather Rev. 108:267-285.
Schmugge, T. 1980 (a). Techniques and applications of microwave radiometry. In Remote sensing in geology. ed. B. S. Siegel and A. R. Gillespie, 337-352. New York: John Wiley.
Schmugge, T. 1980 (b). Microwave approaches in hydrology. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 46:4:495-507.
Stiles, W. H., F. T. Ulaby, and A. Rango. 1981. Microwave measurements of snowpack properties. Nord. Hydrol. 12:143-166.
Tsang, L., and J. A. Kong. 1977. Theory for thermal microwave emission from a bounded medium containing spherical scatters. J. Appl. Phys. 48:8:3593-3599.
Ulaby, F. T., A. K. Fung, and W. H. Stiles. 1978. Backscatter and Emission of Snow: Literature Review and Recommendations for Future in Investigations. RSL Tech. Rep. 369-1. Lawrence: Univ. of Kans.
Vowinckel, E., and S. Orvig. 1970. The climate in the north polar basins. In Climate of the polar regions, World survey of climatology, 14:129-252. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Zwally, J., and P. Gloersen. 1977. Passive microwave images of the polar regions and research applications. Polar Res. 18:431.