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Appendix 1. Summary of the Soundings Contained in the Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive, 1948-1990

East longitudes are positive; west longitudes are negative.

STATION ID                                    LAT          LON      # OF
   NAME                       COUNTRY        DEG N         DEG E    SOUNDINGS         YEARS

1001  JAN MAYEN               NORWAY        70.93         -8.67     15561             58-57
1005  ISFJORD RADIO           NORWAY        78.07         13.63       983             58-62, 64, 66-68
1010  ANDOYA                  NORWAY        69.30         16.12        22             66-68
1020                                        80.05        -18.29      1237             58-63
1028  BJORNOVA                NORWAY        74.52         19.02     16972             58-87
1030                                        69.69        -19.02      2424             58-63
1152  BODO                    NORWAY        67.28         14.42     17005             58-87
2057  16LULEA/KALLAX          SWEDEN        65.60         22.10      5881             63-77
2185                                       66.55         22.13     10000             77-87
2836   SODANKYLA               FINLAN        67.37         26.65     25290             58-87
4202  THULE AFB               GREENL        76.53        -68.75     42617             52-87
4210  UPERNAVIK               GREENL        72.78        -56.17       221             62-64, 71-72
4220  EGEDESMINDE             GREENL        68.70        -52.75     16727             58-87
4230  HOLSTEINBORG            GREENL        66.92        -53.67        12             63, 68-69, 71
4231  SDR. STROMFJORD         GREENL        67.00        -50.80         4             62, 85
4310  NORD                    GREENL        81.60        -16.67      5512             58-73, 75, 77-79, 81, 84-85, 87
4320  DANMARKSHAVN            GREENL        76.77        -18.77     15450             58-87
4330  DANEBORG                GREENL        74.30        -20.22         7             68-70
4339  SCORESBYSUND            GREENL        70.48        -21.97      4819             80-87
4340  KAP TOBIN               GREENL        70.42        -21.97     11819             58-80
4360  ANGMAGSSALIK            GREENL        65.60        -37.63     16452             58-87
20046 GMO IM ET KRENKELYA     SOVIET        80.62         58.05     20826             58-87
20047                                       80.44         52.80      1649             58-63
20069 OSTROV VIZE             SOVIET        79.50         76.98     18358             58-87
20107 BARENTSBURG             SOVIET        78.07         14.22     20289             58-87
20274 OSTROV UEDINENIA        SOVIET        77.50         82.23     17337             58-87
20292 GMO IM EK FEDEROVA      SOVIET        77.72        104.28     19396             58-87
20353 MYS ZHELANIA            SOVIET        76.95         68.58     18207             58-87
20406                                       80.62         58.05         2             79
20667 IM POPOVA               SOVIET        73.33         70.03      8709             58-87
20674 OSTROV DIKSON           SOVIET        73.50         80.23     17487             58-87
20744 MALYE KARMAKULY         SOVIET        72.38         52.73     13088             58-63, 67-74, 76-87
20891 KHATANGA                SOVIET        71.98        102.27     16753             58-80, 83-87
21358 OSTROV ZOHOVA           SOVIET        76.15        152.83     15375             58-87


STATION ID                                    LAT          LON      # OF
   NAME                       COUNTRY        DEG N         DEG E    SOUNDINGS         YEARS

21432 OSTROV KOTELNY          SOVIET        76.00         137.90    18983             58-87
21504 OSTROV PREOBRAZHENIA    SOVIET        74.67         112.93    20447             58-87
21647 MYS SHALAUROVA          SOVIET        73.18         143.93    18181             58-87
21824 BUKHTA TIKSI            SOVIET        71.58         128.92    19476             58-87
21825 OSTROV MOSTAKH          SOVIET        71.53         129.92        2             87
21908 DZHALINDA               SOVIET        70.13         113.97        4             81, 87
21946 COKURDAH                SOVIET        70.62         147.88    11238             58-87
21965 OSTROV CHETYREKHSTOLBO  SOVIET        70.63         162.40    17650             58-87
21982 OSTROV VRANGELYA        SOVIET        70.97        -178.55    16430             58-87
22113 MURMANSK                SOVIET        68.97          33.05    23186             58-87
22165 KANIN NOS               SOVIET        68.65          43.30     1803             58-62
22205 ENA                     SOVIET        67.60          31.17        4             86-87
22217 KANDALASKSA             SOVIET        67.13          32.43    21051             58-87
22271 SOJNA                   SOVIET        67.88          44.13    20852             63-87
22408 KALEVALA                SOVIET        65.20          31.17        2             62
22522 KEM-PORT                SOVIET        64.98          34.78     5660             58-73
23022 AMDERMA                 SOVIET        69.77          61.68    18284             58-87
23074 DUDINKA                 SOVIET        69.40          86.17     2231             58-64, 66-67
23078 NORILSK                 SOVIET        69.32          88.22     8777             80-87
23130                                        0.             0.          6             61, 65
23146 MYS KAMENNY             SOVIET        68.47          73.60    18944             58-87
23162                                        0.             0.         10             60, 65
23205 NARJAN MAR              SOVIET        67.65          53.02    24628             58-87
23274 IGARKA                  SOVIET        67.47          86.57     5356             58-74
23330 SALE-KHARD (OBDORSK)    SOVIET        66.53          66.53    20461             58-87
23339 POLUY                   SOVIET        66.27          67.87       96             76-87
23383 AGATA                   SOVIET        66.93          93.47        2             62
23418 PECHORA                 SOVIET        65.12          57.10    23793             58-87
23472 TURUKHANSK              SOVIET        65.78          87.95    21946             58-87
23552 TARKO-SALE              SOVIET        64.92          77.82     1478             58-65
24125 OLENEK                  SOVIET        68.50         112.43    15175             58-87
24266 VERKHOYANSK             SOVIET        67.55         133.38    19425             58-87
24343 ZHIGANSK                SOVIET        66.77         123.40    21842             58-87
25042 AYON                    SOVIET        69.93         167.97     6272             58-63, 66-86
25123 CHERSKIY                SOVIET        68.80         161.28    18090             58-63, 68-87


STATION ID                                    LAT          LON      # OF
   NAME                       COUNTRY        DEG N         DEG E    SOUNDINGS         YEARS

25173 MYS SCHMIDT             SOVIET        68.92       -179.48     18478             58-87
25248 ILIRNEYJ                SOVIET        67.33        168.23         3             71
25282 VANKAREM                SOVIET        67.85       -175.83        73             80-87
25399 MYS UELEN               SOVIET        66.17       -169.83      7373             58-75
25400 ZYRIANKA                SOVIET        65.73        150.90     13294             63-87
25428 OMOLON                  SOVIET        65.23        160.50     13838             58-87
70026 BARROW, AK              ALASKA        71.30       -156.78     27713             48-87
70086 BARTER IS., AK          ALASKA        70.13       -143.63     24613             53-87
70133 KOTZEBUE, AK            ALASKA        66.87       -162.63      4869             62-75
70192 145UNIVERSITY EXP STA   USA           64.90       -147.90         2             73
71043 NORMAN WELLS, NT        CANADA        65.28       -126.80     23631             55-87
71051 SACHS HARBOUR, NT       CANADA        72.00       -125.27     22302             55-86
71072 MOULD BAY, NT           CANADA        76.23       -119.32     28243             48-87
71074 ISACHSEN, NT            CANADA        78.68       -103.53     21518             48-78
71081 HALL BEACH, NT          CANADA        68.78        -81.25     22020             64-87
71082 ALERT, NT               CANADA        82.50        -62.33     26745             50-87
71090 CLYDE, NT               CANADA        70.47        -68.62     13867             50-70, 72
71914 NANISIVIK, NT           CANADA        72.97        -84.53         2             62
71917 EUREKA, NT              CANADA        80.00        -85.93     28437             48-87
71918 ARCTIC BAY, NT          CANADA        73.03        -85.15      5697             48, 50-57, 62-64, 66
71924 RESOLUTE BAY, NT        CANADA        74.72        -94.95     29933             48-87
71925 CAMBRIDGE BAY, NT       CANADA        69.10       -105.13     13122             62-63, 68, 70-87
71938 COPPERMINE, NT          CANADA        67.82       -115.13     14132             48-70
71957 INUVIK, NT              CANADA        68.30       -133.48     19942             60-87
71968 SHINGLE POINT, YT       CANADA        68.93       -137.23      7056             50-60
80000 Ship "M"                              66.00          2.00     15521             62, 68, 73-87


TOTAL                                                              1,220,713


Appendix 2. Example of a Sounding (THULE GREENLAND, ID=4)

04202 765229125 59 1 1 0     11   63 0  23 4 
10040    31 -329  94  90   3 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P00
10000    62 -308  95  90   3 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P10
 9500   430 -277  79  70   3 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 9000   819 -283  66 105   4 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 8500  1227 -287  83 142   5 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P10
 8000  1660 -301  93 182   5 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 7500  2130 -323  94 225   7 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 7000  2602 -346  97 250   7 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P10
 6500  3130 -370 101 260  11 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 6000  3668 -396 101 260  12 9P 9P 9P 9P 9P90
 5500  4260 -416 999 260  16 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90
 5000  4903 -437 999 270  18 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 4500  5600 -488 999 270  20 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90
 4000  6371 -541 999 270  24 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 3500  7219 -589 999 270  21 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90
 3000  8180 -620 999 270  18 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 2500  9312 -603 999 270  14 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 2000 10712 -588 999 260  14 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 1750 11545 -620 999 260  15 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90
 1500 12499 -616 999 260  15 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
 1250 13624 -631 999 260  14 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90
 1000 14984 -670 999 260  10 9P 9P 8  9P 9P10
  800 16321 -698 999 260  10 9P 9P 8  9P 9P90


Appendix 3. Data for Seasonally-Adjustable Limits Check

Temperature (øC)
Pressure (mb)
at layer                Winter           Spring          Summer        Autumn

  Bottom   Top     Mean      SD      Mean    SD      Mean    SD     Mean   SD

  1200     951     -21.3     12.1     -4.9   10.1      5.0    6.6   -15.7  12.7
  950      901     -19.1      8.9     -6.0    8.6      3.1    6.8   -14.2   9.6
  900      851     -18.6      7.8     -7.4    7.6      0.5    6.2   -14.0   8.7
  850      801     -19.1      7.3     -8.6    7.1     -1.1    5.9   -14.6   8.0
  800      701     -22.3      6.9    -12.1    6.9     -5.5    5.8   -17.9   7.8
  700      601     -25.7      6.5    -15.8    6.7    -10.2    5.5   -21.1   7.4
  600      501     -35.1      6.7    -25.6    6.9    -19.5    6.0   -31.1   8.0
  500      401     -44.7      6.2    -36.0    7.0    -30.3    6.5   -41.2   7.8
  400      301     -54.1      4.8    -47.8    5.2    -44.7    6.2   -52.9   5.7
  300      201     -57.4      6.7    -50.6    5.9    -51.2    5.7   -55.6   5.3
  200      151     -56.3      8.4    -47.7    4.6    -47.1    4.3   -54.1   5.0
  150      101     -56.1      8.5    -48.3    4.1    -46.6    3.1   -55.2   4.7
  100      51      -56.5      9.4    -48.9    4.5    -47.0    3.6   -58.2   6.3
  50       21      -55.1      9.4    -47.4    5.9    -45.4    7.5   -59.6  10.2
  20       0       -50.8     10.1    -38.7   12.9    -38.3   13.0   -54.7  15.1


Geopotential height (m)

                  Winter            Spring         Summer           Autumn

  P (mb)     Mean        SD     Mean      SD    Mean     SD     Mean        SD

  1200           0        0         0      0        0     0         0        0
  1000         121      102       111     74       99    64        95       94
   850        1333      105      1386     79     1417    71      1330       97
   700        2769      123      2882    104     2954    91      2789      121
   500        5159      164      5368    155     5504   135      5217      177
   400        6668      191      6933    189     7108   167      6745      215
   300        8536      209      8859    217     9066   201      8629      251
   250        9695      207     10051    218    10261   206      9795      257
   200       11115      227     11517    216    11720   201     11225      256
   150       12949      218     13420    227    13628   202     13074      256
   100       15537      278     16099    251    16321   217     15667      274
    70       17809      330     18445    278    18685   231     17929      288
    50       19961      381     20659    314    20916   258     20046      316
    30       23236      454     24023    419    24293   473     23282      544
    20       25842      533     26687    592    26998   459     25776      594
    10       30313      573     31333    629    31607   629     30238      555
     1       40000      573     40000    573    40000   573     40000      573


Ln wind speed (with wind speed in ms-1)
Pressure (mb)

at layer              Winter            Spring           Summer        Autumn

  Bottom   Top     Mean      SD      Mean    SD      Mean    SD     Mean   SD

  1200     926     1.933     0.631   1.844   0.588   1.737   0.677  1.914  0.725
  925      776     2.246     0.564   2.049   0.549   2.023   0.555  2.218  0.592
  775      601     2.405     0.557   2.207   0.559   2.143   0.560  2.340  0.585
  600      451     2.692     0.581   2.528   0.597   2.412   0.573  2.605  0.596
  450      351     2.823     0.608   2.717   0.621   2.592   0.600  2.751  0.621
  350      276     2.830     0.636   2.783   0.649   2.748   0.633  2.792  0.667
  275      226     2.736     0.642   2.640   0.648   2.695   0.628  2.737  0.669
  225      176     2.586     0.618   2.357   0.612   2.401   0.580  2.590  0.619
  175      126     2.499     0.595   2.101   0.570   2.123   0.541  2.502  0.549
  125      86      2.519     0.621   1.888   0.534   1.853   0.522  2.523  0.499
  85       66      2.554     0.687   1.730   0.501   1.684   0.518  2.557  0.480
  65       46      2.617     0.744   1.694   0.463   1.622   0.528  2.626  0.502
  45       26      2.743     0.758   1.787   0.431   1.679   0.531  2.763  0.545
  25       16      2.840     0.747   1.912   0.433   1.753   0.559  2.891  0.575
  15       0       3.000     0.727   2.222   0.557   2.031   0.708  3.142  0.568

Appendix 4. Quality Codes

(See text for discussion.)

QG (Geopotential height)

ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)

Auto.  Man.
A	I  Passed vertical consistency check with tight limits.
B	J  Failed vertical consistency check and has not been recomputed.
C	K  Failed vertical consistency check and recomputed.
D	L  Failed vertical consistency check with tight limits and passed with loose limits.
E	M  Not assigned
F	N  Checked but did not pass vertical consistency checks with loose limits
G	O  Not assigned
Blank    $   Not specified
9	9  Corresponding data value missing

ID=2: (Victor Starr Data)
0	Not checked
1	Checked, reported values (presumably good data).
2	Interpolated value (presumably failed check or was missing and value was
              interpolated from next higher and lower value)
9           Corresponding data value missing

ID=3: (Canadian Data) 
Original quality codes were extremely confusing.  They were adjusted to correspond as closely as
possible to those given in ID=1:
A           Passed vertical consistency check with tight limits
B           Failed vertical consistency check with loose limits
C           Failed vertical consistency check and recomputed
9           Corresponding data value missing

ID=4: (Alaskan and Thule, Greenland)
0           Value is correct
1           Value is doubtful
2           Value is in error
3           Replacement value
4           Assumed or estimated value
9           Value not checked
8           Corresponding data value missing

Auto.  Man.
A        I  Passed vertical consistency check with tight limits
B        J  Failed vertical consistency check and has not been recomputed
C        K  Failed vertical consistency check and was recomputed
D        L  Failed vertical consistency check with tight limits, passed with loose limits
E        M  Not assigned
F        N  Checked but did not pass vertical consistency check with loose limits
G        O  Not assigned
Blank	Not specified 
8	8  Corresponding data value missing 
Additional Codes:
P           Undefined
$           Undefined

ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)
Original quality codes in NCAR documentation changed to be as close as possible to those for ID=1. 
Values are as follows:
Auto.   Man.





A        I  Passed vertical consistency check with tight limits


B        J  Failed vertical consistency check and has not been recomputed


C        K  Failed vertical consistency check and recomputed


D        L  Failed vertical consistency check with tight limits and passed with loose limits


O        O  No hydrostatic check done


9        9  Corresponding data value is missing





QT (Temperature)





ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





            Same as for QG





ID=2: (Victor Starr)


  


            Same as for QG





ID=3: (Canadian Data)





            Same as for QG












ID=4: (Alaska and Thule, Greenland)





            Same as for QG





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)         





            Same as for QG





QD (Dewpoint Depression)





ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





Auto.    Man.





Blank    $  Not Specified





ID=2: (Victor Starr)


 


            Same as for QG





ID=3: (Canadian Data)


 


            Same as for QG with following addition:





S           "Statistical".  Original NCAR tapes contained values of relative humidity less than 0.  The


            original documentation stated that the minus sign indicated that the absolute value is


            "statistical", which we assume means that it is obtained from climatology.  We


            converted the absolute value of the relative humidity to dewpoint depression. 


            Generally, values depart considerably from values at adjacent levels.





ID=4: (Alaska and Thule Greenland)





            Same as for QG





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)





            Same as for QG





QW (Wind Direction and Speed)





ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





            Same as for QG








ID=2: (Victor Starr) 





            Same as for QG





ID=3: (Canadian Data)





            Same as for QG





ID=4: (Alaska and Thule, Greenland)





            Same as for QG





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)





            Same as for QG





QP (Pressure)




ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





Auto     Man





Q        Y  Base of stratum with missing data


R        Z  Top of stratum with missing data


T        1  Reported tropopause level


U        2  Not applicable (ignore)


V        3  Not applicable (ignore)


W        4  Maximum reported wind level is not at the terminating level


X        5  Maximum reported wind level is at the terminating level


Blank    $  Not Specified


9        9  Corresponding value is missing.





Note: For mandatory levels, all pressure quality flags are blank (not specified).





ID=2: (Victor Starr)





            Same as for QG





ID=3: (Canadian Data)





            No relevant values, all set to '9'









ID=4: (Alaska and Thule, Greenland)





            Same as for QG





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)





            Same as for QG





LQUAL (Level Quality Code)




ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





            All blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=2: (Victor Starr, 1958-64)





            All blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=3: (Canadian, 1948-87)





            All blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=4: (Alaska and Thule, Greenland)





0           Original values correct


1           Original values missing


2           Original value doubtful, a corrected level follows


3           Original values doubtful, uncorrected


4           Original values in error, a corrected level follows


5           Original values in error, uncorrected


6           Corrected level


9           Level not checked





Auto   Man.





A        I  Passed vertical consistency check with tight limits


B        J  Failed vertical consistency check and has not been recomputed


C        K  Failed vertical consistency check and has been recomputed


D        L  Failed vertical consistency check with tight limits and passed with loose limits


E        M  Not Assigned


F        N  Has been checked but did not pass vertical consistency checks with loose limits


G        O  Not assigned


blank       Not specified





Additional Flags:





H           Not relevant (ignore)


P           Not relevant (ignore)





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)





            All Blanks (flag not applicable)





LTYPE (Level Type)





ID=1: (Soviet, 1976-87)





            All Blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=2: (Victor Starr, 1958-64)





            All blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=3: (Canadian, 1948-87)  





            All blanks (flag not applicable)





ID=4: (Alaska and Thule, Greenland)





0           Surface


1           Mandatory


2           Significant


3           Generated


4           Tropopause


5           Maximum wind


9           Other/unspecified





ID=5: (Soviet, 1962-75)





         All blanks (flag not applicable)