Nimbus High Resolution Infrared Radiometer Digital Swath Data Level 1

This data set (NmHRIR1H) consists of High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) brightness temperatures obtained by the Nimbus 1, Nimbus 2, and Nimbus 3 satellites during 1964, 1966, and 1969. A correction has been applied to minimize seemingly random alignment errors that caused cloud edges and land features to appear jagged in the original 1960s data.

Table of Contents

  1. Contacts and Acknowledgments
  2. Detailed Data Description
  3. Data Access and Tools
  4. Data Acquisition and Processing
  5. References and Related Publications
  6. Document Information

Citing These Data

We kindly request that you cite the use of this data set in a publication using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Gallaher, David and G. Garrett Campbell. 2013. Nimbus High Resolution Infrared Radiometer Digital Swath Data Level 1, HDF5, [indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi:10.5067/NIMBUS/NmHRIR1H.

Overview

Platform

Nimbus 1 Satellite
Nimbus 2 Satellite
Nimbus 3 Satellite

Sensor

High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR)

Spatial Coverage

Global

Spatial Resolution

Approximately 8 km at nadir

Temporal Coverage

Nimbus 1: 29 August to 22 September, 1964
Nimbus 2: 16 May to 15 November, 1966
Nimbus 3: 23 April to 30 November, 1969

Temporal Resolution

Swath (5-min scene)

Parameters

HRIR Temperature

Data Format

HDF5

Metadata Access

View Metadata Record

Data Access

See the Order Data page for a list of options.

1. Contacts and Acknowledgments

Investigators

David Gallaher
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449 USA

G. Garrett Campbell
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449 USA

Technical Contact

NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449  USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
e-mail: nsidc@nsidc.org

Acknowledgements

The Nimbus Data Rescue Project: Nimbus 1, 2, 3 was supported by NASA contract #NNG08HZ07C as a subtask to NSIDC at the University of Colorado. The PIs also wish to thank Alex Calder, Carl Gallaher, and Anna Schroeder for their contributions to this project.

2. Detailed Data Description

This data set consists of High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) observations obtained during 1964, 1966, and 1969 by the Nimbus 1, Nimbus 2, and Nimbus 3 satellites. To help minimize a seemingly random alignment error in the original 1960s data, an algorithm was written to evaluate each scan line and shift it by several pixels in the cross-track direction to better correlate the observations to a local mean. Each HDF5-formatted file contains five minutes of swath data.

Please visit the Order Data page to see options for obtaining NmHRIR1H data files.

File Naming Convention

This section explains the file naming convention used for NmHRIR1H data files.

Example file name:
NmHRIR1H.[yyyy][mm][dd]_[hh]-[mi]-[ss]_[orb]_[ggg].hdf

Refer to Table 2 for descriptions of the file name variables listed above.

Where:

Table 2. NmHRIR1H File Naming Convention
Variable Description
yyyy Year
mm Month
dd Day
hh Hour
mi Minute
ss Second
orb Orbit number
ggg Granule number from each orbit

File Size

Data files are typically 1 MB to 2 MB.

Spatial Coverage

Coverage is global. However, due to mission objectives and technological limitations of the time, coverage is more consistent in some areas (for example North America) and absent from others (for example portions of Alaska).

Spatial Resolution

Approximately 8 km at nadir

Projection and Grid Description

Latitudes and longitudes are provided for each pixel.

Temporal Coverage

Intermittent data are available within the following date ranges:

  • Nimbus 1: 29 August to 22 September, 1964
  • Nimbus 2: 16 May to 15 November, 1966
  • Nimbus 3: 23 April, 1969 to 20 January, 1970

Temporal Resolution

Each file contains 5 minutes of swath data.

Parameter or Variable

Table 3 lists the data fields and corresponding attributes stored in NmHRIR1H data files.

Table 3. NmHRIR1H Data Fields
Data Field Description Attributes Value
Flags Bit flags. See Table 4 for descriptions. Key key = bits 0,1: 00=ocean, 01=25% land, 10=50% land, 11=land; bit 2: on=ascending, off=descending; bit 3: on = day, off=night; bit 4 on=bad data, reflection from spacecraft; bit 5=spare; bit 6 on = temperature out of range; bit 7 on = IR filter in optical path (Nimbus 3 only)
HRIR-Temp Brightness temperature (kelvin) from the 3.4 µm to 4.2 µm near-infrared region, as derived in the 1960s. Data values have been shifted spatially to help offset random alignment errors. See Derivation Techniques and Algorithms for details. DOI 10.5067/NIMBUS/NmHRIR1H
ESDT NmHRIR1H (data set short name)
long_ESDT Nimbus High Resolution Infrared Radiometer
Digital Swath Data Level 1 (data set long name)
units kelvin
Sat Latitude Satellite latitude (at nadir) when scan line was acquired units degrees
Sat Longitude Satellite longitude (at nadir) when scan line was acquired units degrees
cosine Sun Zenith Cosine sun zenith angle from satellite nadir units 1
cosine view angle Cosine view angle of observation units 1
latitude Observation latitude units degrees_north
longitude Observation longitude units degrees_east
scan Time millisec Time scan line was acquired (ms since 1970) units millisecond
shift Alignment shift applied to each scan line (pixels) units pixels
Table 4. Bit Flags Descriptions
Bit(s) Description
0, 1 Ocean/Land Coverage Flag: 00=ocean, 01=25% land, 10=50% land, 11=land
2 Ascending/Descending Half of Orbit: 0=descending; 1=ascending
3 Day/Night Flag: 0=night, 1=day
4 Reflected Light. Flag set to on means bad data due to reflected light from satellite component.
5 Spare. Set to 0.
6 Data Out of Range. Flag set to on means T < 190k or T > 330k.
7 Daytime Observation. Flag set to on means filter is in optical path (Nimbus 3 only). See Error Sources for details.

3. Data Access and Tools

Data Access

Please visit the Order Data page to see options for obtaining NmHRIR1H data files.

Software and Tools

HDF-compatible software packages, such as HDFView and Panoply, can be used to read, extract, and display NmHRIR1H data files.

4. Data Acquisition and Processing

Data Acquisition Methods

The HRIR on the Nimbus I, II, and III satellites transformed measured radiation into electrical voltages that were recorded on tape and played back when the satellite came within range of a receiving station. These data were then transmitted to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), where they were calibrated, converted to temperatures, and archived on 7-track, digital magnetic tapes. In 2009, the contents of these tapes were recovered and written to a binary tape emulation file format (TAP) for preservation. GES DISC, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center, archives and distributes these data and maintains historical Nimbus documentation such as instrument user guides and mission reports.

Derivation Techniques and Algorithms

Processing Steps

In the original HRIR data, cloud edges and land features appear jagged. Closer inspection reveals that adjacent scan lines appear to be shifted relative to each other by plus or minus several pixels in the cross-track direction. These small, random shifts likely reflect some kind of systemic error, due perhaps to repeatedly switching data acquisitions on and off to record only the earthward-facing portion of each scan mirror revolution.

To help minimize this error, reference scan lines were created by smoothing the data with a moving average (n=5). Each unsmoothed scan line was then incrementally shifted in the cross-track direction (maximum of ±10 pixels) and correlated at each step with its smoothed counterpart. Brightness temperatures from the original HRIR data files were then written to the HRIR-Temp data field, offset by the pixel value that yielded the best correlation. Emptied pixels at the ends of scan lines were filled with a value of 3.4028235E+38. Each scan line's shift value is recorded in the shift data field.

Quality Assessment

The realignment improves the visual appearance of the data and better represents the shapes of clouds and coastlines. In regions with very little spatial information, for example where the measurements are very noisy or very uniform, the shifts offer little or no improvement.

Error Sources

Most extant Nimbus 1 and 2 observations were collected at night, however a few daytime orbits have survived. Although the daytime measurements are contaminated by reflected solar radiation, these data have been included for their qualitative and historical value.

Whereas Nimbus I and II operated almost exclusively in nighttime mode, Nimbus III was equipped with an infrared filter that could be inserted into the optical path to acquire daytime reflected solar radiation. However, no flag was set in the data to indicate whether the filter was in or out. Furthermore, a few daytime orbits were collected with no filter in place and contain mixed IR and visible radiation.

In general, daytime orbits appear to correspond to temperatures below 150 K. Bit 7 in the Flags data field is set to on to indicate the PIs' best guess that the filter was in place. Although no calibration exists for the daytime visible data, obvious distinctions between land, cloud, water, and ice surfaces are apparent. However, the visible observations are so scattered in time and space that constructing land surface or cloud maps from these data alone would result in significant sampling errors.

Sensor or Instrument Description

The HRIR on Nimbus I and II was a single scanning radiometer that operated in the 3.4 µm to 4.2 µm near-infrared region. The instrument utilized an optical system and a lead selenide photoconductive detector cell to obtain measurements of blackbody temperatures from 210K – 330K. To allow daytime operation, the Nimbus III HRIR was augmented with a band-pass filter that transmitted reflected solar radiation in the 0.7 µm to 1.3 µm region. The change-over from nighttime to daytime operation was accomplished by actuating a relay, either automatically or by ground station command, to insert the filter into the optical path.

For all three missions, the scan mirror was inclined to 45 degrees with a scan rate of 44.7 revolutions per minute. The Instantaneous field of view was 8.8 milliradians and the scan line separation was 8.3 km. The radiometer's instantaneous field of view covered roughly 0.5 degrees, which at an altitude of 1100 km corresponded to a ground resolution of approximately 8 km at nadir.

5. References and Related Publications

References

Gallaher, D., G. G. Campbell, and W. N. Meier. In Press. Anomalous Variability in Antarctic Sea Ice Extents During the 1960's with the Use of Nimbus Satellite Data. Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.

Meier, W. N., D. Gallaher, and G. G. Campbell. 2013. New Estimates of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Extent During September 1964 from Recovered Nimbus I Satellite Imagery. The Cryosphere Discuss 7:35-53. doi: 10.5194/tcd-7-35-2013.

Related Web Sites

6. Document Information

Acronyms and Abbreviations

The acronyms used in this document are listed in the following table.

Table 5. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym Description
DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center
ESDT Earth Science Data Type
GES DISC Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center
GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center
HDF Hierarchical Data Format
HRIR High Resolution Infrared Radiometer
NOAA The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSIDC The National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSSDC National Space Science Data Center
TAP Tape Emulation File Format

Document Creation Date

August 2013

Document URL

http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nimbus/nmhrir1h/index.html