AGDC Home

THERMAP:
Ice Temperature Measurements of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

Data Set Summary

The THERMAP data set is a combination of Antarctic ice sheet subsurface temperature measurements. The measurement types are: shallow firn core temperatures (10-meter temperatures) and deeper ice core temperatures (drill hole temperatures). The 10-meter temperature measurements provide a close estimate of mean annual surface air temperature. The deeper drill-hole temperatures reveal basal phase states (frozen or thawed), geothermal heat flow, and the thermal and dynamic history of the ice. Data come from a variety of published and unpublished sources.

The 10-meter data contains temperature measurements dating back prior to 1956 and the International Geophysical Year, including measurements from several major recent surveys. Data cover the entire continental ice sheet and several ice shelves, but coverage density is generally low. For more information, please see the notes available for each 10-meter data set, and the list of related publications.

The deeper drill-hole temperature data collection also covers a large portion of the ice sheet. The time frame covered by this collection is 1949-1979.

Data Access

Data are available via ftp and are formatted as ASCII text files containing latitude, longitude, elevation, depth, temperature, and date of acquisition. Some files also contain surface and ten-meter density and local accumulation rate measurements.

Data are by traverse and by collection date. You can view data online, access information about data sources and data acquisition techniques, and locate data in the context of ice sheet surface features by viewing satellite images.

Citing These Data

Please cite both the original data source provided with each data set, and the following citation:

Bohlander, J. and T. Scambos, compilers. 2001. THERMAP Antarctic Ice Sheet Temperature Data. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Contributing Data

This data set is the archive for the THERMAP program, an effort to collect similar temperature data from a wide variety of sources. More than 600 measurements are currently included. If you would like to contribute data to this archive, please complete our data submission form.

Contacts

Please direct inquiries regarding this data collection to NSIDC User Services.

Related Publications

Anderson, V.H., 1958. Report 825-1 Part II, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1957-1958, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Aughenbaugh, N., H. Neuburg, and P. Walker, 1959. Ellsworth Station glaciological and geological data. Report 825-1 Part I, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1957 and 1958, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Bentley, C.R., R.L. Cameron, C. Bull, K. Kojima, and A.J. Gow, 1964. Physical Characteristics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Antarc. Map Folio Ser., folio 2, Am. Geogr. Soc.

Boyd, W.W., Jr., 1960. Ross Ice Shelf Traverse. Report 825-1 Part IV, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1957-1958, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Brecher, H., 1964. Glaciological Observations on the Byrd Station-South Pole Traverse, 1960-1961. J. of Glaciol., 5(39), 339-343.

Cameron, R.L., E. Picciotto, H. S. Kane, and J. Gliozzi, 1968. Glaciology of the Queen Maud Land Traverse, 1964-1965, South Pole-Pole of Relative Inaccessibility. Institute of Polar Studies Report, No. 23. The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Cameron, R.L., 1964. Glaciological Studies at Wilkes Station, Budd Coast, Antarctica. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 2, 1-36, AGU.

Crary, A.P., 1963. Results of United States Traverses in East Antarctica, 1958-1961. IGY Glaciological Report, No. 7, AGU.

Crary, A.P., E.S. Robinson, H.F. Bennett, and W.W. Boyd, Jr., 1962. Glaciological Studies of The Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, 1957-1960. IGY Glaciological Report, No. 6, Am. Geogr. Soc.

Crary, A.P., 1961. Glaciological Studies at Little America Station, Antarctica, 1957 and 1958. IGY Glaciological Report, No. 5, Am. Geogr. Soc.

De Breuck, W., 1969. Queen Maud Land Traverse III 1967-1968. Glaciology, Snow sampling program of the Center of Polar Studies, Field Report, Ohio State University.

DenHartog, S.L., and C.R. Wilson, 1959. Little America-Victoria Land Traverse Movement Studies. Report 825-2-Part II, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1958 and 1959, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Fujiwara, K., and Y. Endo, 1971. Preliminary Report of Glaciological Studies. Report of the Japanese Traverse Syowa-South Pole 1968-1969, JARE Scientific Reports, Special Issue, No. 2, 68-109.

Giovinetto, M.B., 1963. Glaciological Studies on the Mcmurdo-South Pole Traverse, 1960-1961. Institue of Polar Studies Report, No. 7, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Giovinetto, M.B., 1960. South Pole Station. Report 825-2-Part IV, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1958-1959, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Goodwin, R., 1959. Ellsworth Traverse, 1958-1959. Report 825-2 Part III, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1958-1959, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Isaksson, E., M.R. Van Den Broeke, J. Winther, L. Karlof, J.F. Pinglot, N. Gundestrup, 1999. Accumulation and proxy-temperature variability in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, determined from shallow firn cores. Ann. Glaciol., 29, 17-22.

Koerner, R.M., 1971. A Stratigrpahic Medthod of Determining the Snow Accumulation Rate at Plateau Station, Antarctica, and Application to South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse 2, 1965-1966. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies II, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 16, 225-238, AGU.

Kojima, K., 1964. Densification of Snow in Antarctica. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies, Antarc Res. Ser., vol. 2, 157-218, AGU.

Long, W. E., 1961. Glaciology, Byrd Station and Marie Byrd Land Traverse, 1958-1959. Report 825-2 Part XI, USNC-IGY Antarctic Glaciological Data Feild Work 1958-1959, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Martin, P.J., and D.A. Peel, 1978. The Spatial Distribution of 10 m Temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula. J. of Glaciol., 20(83), 311-317.

Peel, D.A., and H.B. Clausen, 1982. Oxygen-isotope and total beta-radioactivity measurements on 10 m ice cores from the Antarctic Peninsula. J. of Glaciol., 28(98), 43-55.

Peel, D.A., 1976. Snow Accumulation, Conductance and Temperature Inland from Halley Bay. Brit. Antarctic Survey Bull., No. 43, p. 1-13.

Picciotto, E., G. Crozaz, and W. De Breuck, 1971. Accumulation on the South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse, 1964-1968. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies II, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 16, 257-315, AGU.

Pirrit, J., and G.A. Doumani, 1961. Glaciology, Byrd Station and Marie Byrd Land Traverse, 1959-1960. Report 968-2, IGC Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1959, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Potter, J.R., J.G. Paren, and J. Loynes, 1984. Glaciological and Oceanographic Calculations of the Mass Balance and Oxygen Isotope Ratio of a Melting Ice Shelf. J. of Glaciol., 30(105), 161-170.

Rundle, A.S., 1971. Snow Accumulation and Firn Stratigraphy on the East Antarctic Plateau. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies II, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 16, 239-255, AGU.

Rundle, A.S., 1968. Snow Stratigraphy and Accumulation (South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse III). Antarct. J. U.S., 3(4), 95-96.

Satow, K., 1977. Snow Temperatures at a Depth of 10 meters. Jpn. Antarct. Res. Exped. Data Report, 36 (Glaciol.), 59-60.

Schytt, V., 1960. Glaciology II Part D: Snow and Ice Temperatures in Dronning Maud Land. Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949-1952, Scientific Results, vol. IV.

Shimizu, H., R. Naruse, K. Omoto, and A. Yoshimura, 1972. Position of Stations, Surface Elevation and Thickness of the Ice Sheet, and Snow Temperature at 10 m Depth in the Mizuho Plateau-West Enderby Land Area, East Antarctica, 1969-1971. Jpn. Antarct. Res. Exped. Data Report, 17 (Glaciol.), 12-37.

Shimizu, H., 1964. Glaciological Studies in West Antarctica. 1960-1962. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 2, 37-64, AGU.

Stuart, A.W., and Arnold J. Heine, 1961. Glaciology, Victoria Land Traverse, 1959-60. Report 968-1, IGC Antarctic Glaciological Data Field Work 1959-1960, Ohio State University Research Foundation

Taylor, L.D., 1971. Glaciological Studies on the South Pole Traverse, 1962-1963. Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies II, Antarc. Res. Ser., vol. 16, 209-224, AGU.

Taylor, L.D., 1965. Glaciological Studies on the South Pole Traverse, 1962-1963. Institute of Polar Studies Report, No. 17, The Ohio State Univ. Res. Found.

Thomas, R.H., D.R. MacAyeal, D.H. Eilers, and D.R. Gaylord, 1984. Glaciological Studies on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, 1972-1978. The Ross Ice Shelf: Glaciology and Geophysics Antarctic Research Series, vol. 42, Paper 2, 21-53, AGU.

Van Den Broeke, M.R., J. Winther, E. Isaksson, J.F. Pinglot, L. Karlof, T. Eiken, L. Conrads, 1999. Climate Variables along a Traverse Line in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. J. of Glaciol., 42(150), 295-302.

Yamada, T., and H. Narita, 1975. Snow Temperature at 10 meters below the Surface in Mizuho Plateau. Jpn. Antarct. Res. Exped. Data Report, 27 (Glaciol.), 145.

Young, N.W., M. Pourchet, V.M. Kotlyakov, P.A. Korolev, and M.B. Dyugerov, 1982. Accumulation Distribution in the IAGP Area, Antarctica: 90E-150E. Ann. of Glaciol, 3, 333-338.