WAISCORES Snow Pit Chemistry, Antarctica

Summary

This data set is part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet cores (WAISCORES) project, an NSF-funded project to understand the influence of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet on climate and sea level change. WAISCORES researchers acquired and analyzed snow pit and core samples from the Siple Dome, in the Siple Coast region, West Antarctica.

This data set includes glaciochemical spatial variability data for Siple Dome snow pits B, E, F, G, H, and 1 through 6. Samples were analyzed for soluble ion content via suppressed ion chromatography. Each pit was sampled at 2 cm resolution for ion chemistry using clean procedures, and sampled again at 3 cm resolution for density calculations. Snow pit names and locations correspond to the 1996 to 1997 season shallow core sites.

Data in this collection were obtained during two Antarctic field seasons in 1994 to 1995 and 1996 to 1997. Data are available via FTP in space-delimited ASCII text (.dat) file format.

Citing These Data

We kindly request that you cite the use of this data set in a publication using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

The following example shows how to cite the use of this data set in a publication. List the principal investigators, year of data set release, publisher: NSIDC, and digital media.

Kreutz, K. and P. A. Mayewski. 2009. WAISCORES Snow Pit Chemistry, Antarctica. Boulder, Colorado, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5SQ8XBR.

Overview Table

Category Description
Data format ASCII data files (.dat)
Spatial coverage and resolution Southernmost Latitude: 81.65°S
Northernmost Latitude: 81.05°S
Westernmost Longitude: 149.11°W
Easternmost Longitude: 148.51°W
Temporal coverage and resolution Data were collected in 1994 to 1995 and 1996 to 1997 Antarctic field seasons (November to February).
Tools for accessing data Data are available via FTP.
File naming convention 94-1Density.dat
94-5isotopes.dat
96-Bppb.dat
96-Hueq.dat
File size The data set is 480 KB total.
Parameter(s) Density in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc)
Chemistry in parts per billion (ppb, 109)
Chemistry in microequivalents (ueq, 10-6)
Stable isotopes in δD (dD) and δ18O (d18O)

Table of Contents

  1. Contacts and Acknowledgments
  2. Detailed Data Description
  3. Data Access and Tools
  4. Data Acquisition and Processing
  5. References and Related Publications
  6. Document Information

1. Contacts and Acknowledgments

Investigator(s)

Dr. Karl Kreutz
Climate Change Institute
236 Sawyer Environmental Research Center
University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469
USA

Dr. Paul Mayewski
Climate Change Institute
133 Sawyer Environmental Research Center
University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469
USA

Technical Contact

NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449  USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
e-mail: nsidc@nsidc.org

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NSF OPP grant 9526449.

2. Detailed Data Description

Format

Data are available as space-delimited ASCII text files (.dat).

File and Directory Structure

Data are available on the FTP site in the ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/AGDC/waiscores/kreutz/ directory. Table 1 lists the files in this directory:

Table 1. Files in the /AGDC/waiscores/kreutz/ directory
File Name Description
94-1Density.dat
94-2Density.dat
94-3Density.dat
94-4Density.dat
94-5Density.dat
Density calculations for snow pits, 1994
96-BDensity.dat
96-EDensity.dat
96-FDensity.dat
96-GDensity.dat
96-HDensity.dat
Density calculations for snow pits, 1996
94-1ppb.dat
94-2ppb.dat
94-3ppb.dat
94-4ppb.dat
94-5ppb.dat
94-6ppb.dat
Chemistry concentration for snow pits, 1994
96-Bppb.dat
96-Eppb.dat
96-Fppb.dat
96-Gppb.dat
96-Hppb.dat
Chemistry concentration for snow pits, 1996
94-1ueq.dat
94-2ueq.dat
94-3ueq.dat
94-4ueq.dat
94-5ueq.dat
Chemistry measurements for snow pits, 1994
96-Bueq.dat
96-Eueq.dat
96-Fueq.dat
96-Gueq.dat
96-Hueq.dat
Chemistry measurements for snow pits, 1996
94-1isotopes.dat
94-2isotopes.dat
94-3isotopes.dat
94-4isotopes.dat
94-5isotopes.dat
Stable isotope measurements for snow pits, 1994
snowpitmeta.html Notes related to the data set, available as an HTML file

File Naming Convention

Files are named according to the following convention:

YY-xmeasurementname.dat

Where:

Table 2. File Naming Convention
Variable Description
YY 2-digit year, 94 or 96
x Site location, Snow Pit 1-6 or B, E, F, G, H
measurementname Measurement type:
  • Density
  • Isotopes
  • ppb
  • ueq
.dat File extension

File Size

The data set contains 37 files ranging in size from 1 KB to 39 KB.

Spatial Coverage

Southernmost Latitude: 81.65°S
Northernmost Latitude: 81.05°S
Westernmost Longitude: 149.11°W
Easternmost Longitude: 148.51°W

Temporal Coverage

Data were obtained during two Antarctic field seasons (November to February) in 1994 to 1995 and 1996 to 1997.

Parameter or Variable

Parameters include density in grams per cubic centimenter (g/cc), chemistry in microequivalents (ueq) and parts per billion (ppb), and stable isotope ratios in δD (dD) and δ18O (d18O). Measurements for both the sea salt concentration (ss) and the non-sea salt concentration (nss) of isoions are also included within the chemistry.

Parameter Description

Snow pit data files include density, chemistry, and stable isotope measurements for snow pits at Siple Dome summit. Table 3 provides details on the files and parameters.

Table 3. Snow Pit Data Files and Parameters
Parameter Description
Snow Pit Densities
Snow Pit density File containing sample ID, depth, and weight measurements and density calculations for samples with a 3 cm resolution
Chemistry
Isoions Files containing sample ID, measurement depth, and ion concentration in parts per billion (ppb) and microequivalents (ueq) for the following ions with a 2 cm resolution:
  • Na+ **
  • NH4+
  • K+ **
  • Mg+ **
  • Ca2+ **
  • Cl- **
  • NO3-
  • SO42- **
  • MSA (methanesulfonic acid)
  • Br-
**: Includes concentrations of sea salt (ss) and non-sea salt (nss). SO42- also includes concentrations of excess (xs).
Stable Isotopes
Stable Isotopes File containing sample ID, sample depth, and stable isotope ratios in δD (dD) and δ18O (d18O)

Sample Data Records

Below are two full sample records from the Snow Pit Density and Stable Isotopes data files, and two partial sample records from the Isoions data files. For the partial sample records, the first four columns and last four columns of the data files are shown, and only the first four data records are shown.

Snow Pit Density:

Sample Depth (m) Weight (gm) Density (g/cc)
1 0.04 6 0.06
2 0.07 14 0.14
3 0.11 23 0.23
4 0.15 27.5 0.28

Isoions:

Sample Depth (m) Na (ppb) ssNa (ppb) ... nssSO4 (ppb) xsSO4 (ppb) MSA (ppb) Br (ppb)
1 0 38.13 33.39 ... 84.83 89.4 12.07 37
2 0.02 97.32 74.49 ... 95.31 104.27 28.03 454
3 0.04 66.99 66.62 ... 57.9 67.91 11.55 121
4 0.06 102.4 95.95 ... 35.72 49.55 14.06 33

Sample Depth (m) Na (ueq) ssNa (ueq) ... NO3 (ueq) SO4 (ueq) xsSO4 (ueq) MSA (ueq)
1 0 1.64 1.45 ... 1.27 1.96 1.88 0.13
2 0.02 4.18 3.24 ... 1.35 2.39 2.19 0.29
3 0.04 2.88 2.9 ... 1.04 1.57 1.43 0.12
4 0.06 4.4 4.17 ... 0.64 1.26 1.04 0.15

Stable Isotopes:

Sample Depth (cm) dD d18O
4 6 -197.34107 -25.92
5 8 -211.82267 -27.73
6 10 -231.79366 -29.92
7 12 -258.96694 -34.1

3. Data Access and Tools

Data Access

Data are available via FTP.

Volume

The total volume of the data set is 480 KB.

Software and Tools

Data are accessible using standard spreadsheet software.

Related Data Collections

4. Data Acquisition and Processing

Snow pit and core samples (1 to 4 m deep) were collected at five snow pits on a 10 km by 10 km surveyed grid centered on the Siple Dome summit during the 1994 to 1995 season and at four 2 m snow pits on a transect from 30 km north to 30 km south of the ice divide during the 1996 to 1997 season. Samples were analyzed at high resolution for stable isotopes (δ18O, δD), major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, MSA), and density calculations. Workers used nonparticulating suits, polyethylene gloves, and particle masks to collect all snow pit and core samples without chemical contamination. Concentrations of major ions were measured via suppressed ion chromatography.

5. References and Related Publications

Kreutz, K. J. and P. A. Mayewski. 1999. Spatial Variability of Antarctic Surface Snow Glaciochemistry: Implications for Paleoatmospheric Circulation Reconstructions. Antarctic Science 11(1):105-118: doi:10.1017/S0954102099000140.

Kreutz, K. J., P. A. Mayewski, M. S. Twickler, S. I. Whitlow, and L. D. Meeker. 1997. Glaciochemical Studies at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, During the 1996-97 Season. Antarctic Journal of the U.S. 32(5):46-48.

Kreutz, K. J., P. A. Mayewski, M. S. Twickler, S. I. Whitlow, J. W. C. White, C. A. Shuman, C. R. Raymond, H. Conway, and J. R. McConnell. 1999. Seasonal Variations of Glaciochemical, Isotopic, and Stratigraphic Properties in Siple Dome, Antarctica Surface Snow. Annals of Glaciology 29:1-7.

Mayewski, P. A., M. S. Twickler, and S. I. Whitlow. 1995. The Siple Dome Ice Core-reconnaissance Glaciochemistry. Antarctic Journal of the U.S. , 30(5), 85-87.

The following related documents are available on NSIDC's Web site.

Table 4. Related Documents
Document Description URL
WAISCORES Project Web site http://nsidc.org/data/waiscores/
Antarctic Glaciological Data Center Data center Web site http://nsidc.org/agdc/

6. Document Information

Acronyms

The following acronyms are used in this document.

Table 5. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym Description
D18O δ18O stable isotope ratio
.DAT Data file extension
DD δD stable isotope ratio
FTP File Transfer Protocol
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSS Non-sea salt
PPB Parts per billion, 109
SS Sea salt
UEQ Microequivalents, 10-6
URL Uniform Resource Locator
WAISCORES Western Divide West Antarctic Ice Cores
XS Excess

Document Creation Date

12 August 2009

Document URL

http://nsidc.org/data/docs/agdc/nsidc0420_kreutz/index.html