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Atmospheric Mixing Ratios of Hydroperoxides above the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

Summary

This data set contains atmospheric mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide at 21 sites on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) were obtained from 2000 to 2003 during the US International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) deployments. Sample location from the WAIS region (76-90S / 84-124W) were approximately 100-300 km apart and correspond to US ITASE ice core sites. At each site, ambient air from 1 m above the snow surface was sampled between two to five days. Atmospheric hydroperoxides (ROOH) were continuously scrubbed from the sample air with a glass coil scrubber and subsequently quantified using a fluorescence detection method.

Data are available via FTP as ASCII text files (.txt).

Citing These Data

We kindly request that you cite the use of this data set in a publication using the following citation example. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

The following example shows how to cite the use of this data set in a publication. List the principal investigators, year of data set release, data set title, publisher: NSIDC, and digital media

Bales, R., M. Frey, and J. McConnell. 2009. Atmospheric Mixing Ratios of Hydroperoxides Above the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Boulder, Colorado, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5PZ56RS.

Overview Table

Category Description
Data format ACSII text files (.txt)
Spatial coverage and resolution Southernmost Latitude: 90S
Northernmost Latitude: 76 °S
Westernmost Longitude: 124°W
Easternmost Longitude: 84°W
Temporal coverage and resolution 20 November 2000 to 15 January 2003, Antarctic summers only.
File naming convention IT01.txt
File size Files in this data set range in size from 2 KB to 126 KB
Parameter(s) Latitude and longitude
Hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios
Methylhydroperoxide mixing ratios
Air temperature
Procedures for obtaining data Data are available via FTP.

Table of Contents

  1. Contacts and Acknowledgments
  2. Detailed Data Description
  3. Data Access and Tools
  4. Data Acquisition and Processing
  5. References and Related Publications
  6. Document Information

1. Contacts and Acknowledgments

Investigator(s)

Dr. Roger Bales
University of California
School of Engineering
PO Box 2039
Merced, California 95344

Dr. Markus Frey
University of California
School of Engineering
PO Box 2039
Merced, California 95344

Dr. Joseph McConnell
Hydrologic Sciences Division
Desert Research Institute
2215 Raggio Parkway

Technical Contact

NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449  USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
e-mail: nsidc@nsidc.org

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NSF OPP grant 9814810 .

2. Detailed Data Description

Format

Data are available as ASCII text files (.txt).

File and Directory Structure

Data are available on the FTP site in the ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/AGDC/bales_nsidc_0394/ directory. The directory contains a folder with four data files in ASCII text format, and a metadata file, site_info.txt, which lists site information for each data file. Descriptions of the column headings in the site_info.txt file are listed in Table 1.

Table 1.Column Description for the site_info.txt file
Column Description
site Site ID number
lat, °S Latitude
long, °W Longitude
elev, m Site elevation, meters above mean sea level
T, °C Mean site temperature, ºC
start, GMT Start sampling, GMT decimal year
stop, GMT Stop sampling, GMT decimal year

 

File Naming Convention

Files are named according to the following convention and as described in Table 2:

ITyy_i.txt

where:

Table 2. File Naming Convention
Parameter Description
ITyy Measurement location and sampling intervals, as described in site_info.txt file
_i Measurement number
.txt File extension for ASCII text files

File Size

Files in this data set range in size from 8 KB to 126 KB .

Spatial Coverage

Data were collected along the United States International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) traverse route.

Southernmost Latitude: 90 °S
Northernmost Latitude: 76 °S
Westernmost Longitude: 124°W
Easternmost Longitude: 84 °W

Spatial Coverage Map

Map: Location of US ITASE traverses

Map: Location of US ITASE traverses

The map above shows the traverse routes of the United States portion of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE).

Temporal Coverage

Data in this collection were obtained 20 November 2000 to 15 January 2003, Antarctic summers only.

Parameter or Variable

Table 3. Parameters in the Profile Data Files
Column Number Description
1 Measurement date, GMT decimal year
2 10 min. average hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), parts per trillion by volume (pptv)
3 1 standard deviation H2O2, pptv
4 Number of 2.5 min intervals used for average
5 10 min. average methylhydroperoxide (MHP), pptv
6 1 standard deviation MHP, pptv
7 Number of data points (chromatograms) used for average


Sample Data Record

The following example shows sample data from the IT01.txt file:

2001.904871 459 16 3 371 0 1
2001.904909 471 19 5 296 0 1
2001.904928 444 25 3 392 0 1
2001.904947 423 11 4 370 0 1


3. Data Access and Tools

Data Access

Data are available via FTP.

Volume

The total volume of the data set is less than 0.124 MB.

Software and Tools

Data are accessible using standard spreadsheet software or a text reader.

Related Data Collections

4. Data Acquisition and Processing

Theory of Measurements

Researchers conducted measurements at each site along the traverse. Ambient air from 1 meter above the snow surface was sampled between two to five days. Atmospheric hydroperoxides were continuously scrubbed from the sample air with a glass coil scrubber and subsequently quantified using a fluorescence detection method.

Sensor or Instrument Description

The two-channel instrument measured total peroxides continuously (Channel 1), and H2O2 and Methylhydroperoxide (MHP) using a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method (Channel 2). For a detailed instrument description see: Frey, et al. 2005.

Data Acquisition Methods

Atmospheric hydroperoxides were continuously scrubbed from the sample air with a glass coil scrubber and subsequently quantified using a fluorescence detection method. The two-channel instrument deployed measured total peroxides continuously (Channel 1) and H2O2 & MHP using a HPLC method (Channel 2). At each site ambient air from 1 meter above the snow surface was sampled between two to five days. Atmospheric hydroperoxides were continuously scrubbed from the sample air with a glass coil scrubber and subsequently quantified using a fluorescence detection method.

Limits of Detection

More details on database development (experimental method, data processing) and discussion of the results are published in Frey, et al., 2005.

Precision for H202 was less than 20pptv MHP (<60pptv 2). Limits of detection for peroxide and MHP are listed below.

Table 4. Limits of Detection for H2O2 and MHP
Parameter Year Detection Limit
H202 2000-2001
2001-2002
<50 pptv
H202 2002-2003 <30 pptv
MHP 2001-2002 <150 pptv
MHP 2002-2003 <30pptv

5. References and Related Publications

Acker, K., N. Kezele, L. Klasinc, D. Moller, G. Pehnec, G. Sorgo, W. Wieprecht, and S. Zuzul. 2008. Atmospheric H2O2 Measurement and Modeling Campaign During Summer 2004 in Zagreb, Croatia. Atmos. Environ. 42(10):2530;2542.

Eisele, F., D. D. Davis, D. Helmig, S. J. Oltmans, W. Neff, G. Huey, D. Tanner, G. Chen, J. Crawford, R. Arimoto, M. Buhr, L. Mauldin, M. Hutterli, J. Dibb, D. Blake, S. B. Brooks, B. Johnson, J. M., Roberts, Y. H. Wang, D. Tan, and F. Flocke. 2008. Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI), 2003 Overview. Atmos. Environ. 42(12):2749;2761.

Frey, M. M., R. C. Bales, and J. R. McConnell. 2006. Climate Sensitivity of the Century-Scale Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Record Preserved in 23 Ice Cores from West Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006816.

Frey, M. M., M. A. Hutterli, G. Chen, S. J. Sjostedt, J. F. Burkhart, D. K. Friel, and R. C. Bales. 2009. Contrasting Atmospheric Boundary Layer Chemistry of Methylhydroperoxide (CH3OOH) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H202) above Polar Snow. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(10): 3261–3276.

Frey, M. M., R. W. Stewart, J. R. McConnell, and R. C. Bales. 2005. Atmospheric Hydroperoxides in West Antarctica: Links to Stratospheric Ozone and Atmospheric Oxidation Capacity. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JD006110.

Grannas, A. M., A. E. Jones. J. Dibb, M. Ammann, C. Anastasio, H. J. Beine, M. H. Bergin, J. Bottenheim, C. Boxe, G. Carver, G. Chen, F. Domine, M. Frey, M. I. Guzman, D. E. Heard, D. Helmig, M. R. Hoffmann, R. Honrath, G. Huey, L. M. Hutterli, H. W. Jacobi, P. Klan, J. McConnell, R. Sander, J. Savarino, P. Shepson, W. Simpson, J. Sodeau, R. von Glasow, G. Weller, E. Wolff, and T. Zhu. 2007. An Overview of Snow Photochemistry: Evidence, Mechanisms and Impacts. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 4329-4373.

Kirschvink, J. L. and R. E. Kopp. 2008.Palaeoproterozoic Ice Houses and the Evolution of Oxygen-Mediating Enzymes: The Case for a Late Origin of Photosystem ii. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 363(1504):2755;2765.

Oltmans, S. J., B. J. Johnson, and D. Helmig. 2008. Episodes of High Surface-Ozone Amounts at South Pole during Summer and their Impact on the Long-Term Surface-Ozone Variation. Atmos. Environ. 42(12):2804;2816.

Sanchez, M., M. B. Ferraro, I. Alkorta, J. Elguero, and S. P. A. Sauer. 2008. Atomic Partition of the Optical Rotatory Power of Methylhydroperoxide. J. Chem. Phys. 128(6):064318.

Savarino, J., J. Kaiser, S. Morin, D. M. Sigman, and M. H. Thiemens. 2007. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Constraints on the Origin of Atmospheric Nitrate in Coastal Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1925;1945.

6. Document Information

Acronyms

The following acronyms are used in this document.

Table 5. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym Description
FTP File Transfer Protocol
NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center
URL Uniform Resource Locator
WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet
ITASE International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition
CH3OOH methylhydroperoxide
MHP methylhydroperoxide
H2O2 hydrogen peroxide
ROOH hydroperoxides
ppbw parts per billion by weight
pptv parts per trillion by volume

Document Creation Date

23 April 2009

Document URL

http://nsidc.org/data/docs/agdc/nsidc0394_bales/index.html