Antarctic Mean Annual Temperature Map

Summary

The Mean Annual Temperature map was calculated by creating a contour map using compiled 10 meter firn temperature data from NSIDC and other mean annual temperature data from both cores and stations.

The 10 meter data contains temperature measurements dating back to 1957 and the International Geophysical Year, including measurements from several major recent surveys. Data cover the entire continental ice sheet and several ice shelves, but coverage density is generally low.

Data are stored in Microsoft Excel and Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), and are available sporadically from 1957 to 2003 via FTP.

Citing These Data

We kindly request that you cite the use of this data set in a publication using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Daniel A. Dixon. 2007. Antarctic Mean Annual Temperature Map. [indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N51C1TTV.

Overview Table

Category Description
Data format Microsoft Excel, Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
Spatial coverage and resolution Southernmost Latitude: 90° S
Northernmost Latitude: 65° S
Westernmost Longitude: 180° W
Easternmost Longitude: 180° E
Temporal coverage and resolution 1957-2003
Coverage is variable.
File naming convention 10m_temps_MORE_Dixon.xls
10m_temps_NSIDC_Dixon.xls
Antarctic_Mean_Annual_Temp_Data_Dixon.tif
File size Two Excel files are 42 KB and 376 KB. The map TIFF file is 3071 KB.
Parameter(s) Firn Temperature
Procedures for obtaining data Data are available via FTP.

Table of Contents

  1. Contacts and Acknowledgments
  2. Detailed Data Description
  3. Data Access and Tools
  4. Data Acquisition and Processing
  5. References and Related Publications
  6. Document Information

1. Contacts and Acknowledgments

Investigator(s)

Daniel Dixon
5790 Bryand Global Sciences Center
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469

Technical Contact

NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449  USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
e-mail: nsidc@nsidc.org

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NSF OPP grant number 229573.

2. Detailed Data Description

Format

Data files are in Microsoft Excel (.xls) format viewable with spreadsheet software. A map is available in TIFF format.

File and Directory Structure

Data are available on the FTP site in the /pub/DATASETS/AGDC/dixon_nsidc_0318/ directory.


File Naming Convention

This data set contains three files. The 10m_temps_NSIDC_dixon.xls file contains ten-meter temperature data housed at NSIDC and compiled by Daniel Dixon. The 10m_temps_MORE_dixon.xls file contains temperature data that is not maintained by NSIDC. Daniel Dixon compiled this data. The Antarctic_Mean_Annual_Temp_Data_Dixon.tif file is a map image showing the locations of data in both Excel files.


File Size

File sizes range from 46 KB to 3071 KB.

Spatial Coverage

This data set spans the entire continent of Antarctica.

Southernmost Latitude: 90° S
Northernmost Latitude: 65° S
Westernmost Longitude: 180° W
Easternmost Longitude: 180° E

Spatial Coverage Map

The thumbnail image below shows the map TIFF file available via FTP.

Temporal Coverage

Data were collected periodically between 1957 and 2003.

Parameter or Variable

Parameters include location of measurement stations as geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) and polar stereographic (km), measurement type and depth, and temperature.

The following table describes the columns in the data files.
Note: Not all data records contain all columns.

Table 1. Description of Columns in Ten Meter Temperature Excel Files
Column
Description
Site Station Name or Code
Lat/Lon Measurement location in geographic coordinates
Polar X/Polar Y Measurement location in polar stereographic coordinates (km)
Elev Elevation at measurement site
Depth Measurement depth
Flag Represents how temperature was derived:
  • D: measurements corrected for thermal decay, but not for annual thermal cycle
  • S: single point measurement, not corrected for short-term thermal decay or annual thermal cycle
  • E: extrapolated measurement
  • A: mean annual temperature measurement
    Note: Accuracy of temperature values is questionable because temperature measurements were not taken at the bottom of the hole.
Temp Recorded Temperature
Temp. Data Type Type of temperature data, such as 10-meter temperature, or mean annual air temperature


Sample Data Record

The following example shows sample data from the 10m_temps_NSIDC_dixon.xls file

St# Date Lat(S) Lon(W) Elev Temp Flag* Depth (m)
1 15 11 70 -78.6 -13.233 1660 -34.2 A 10

 

3. Data Access and Tools

Data Access

Data are available via FTP.

Volume

The entire data set is approximately 3500 KB.

Software and Tools

Data are accessible using standard image processing and spreadsheet software.

Related Data Collections

4. Data Acquisition and Processing

Data Acquisition Methods

The Antarctic Mean Annual Temperature Map was compiled from ten-meter temperature measurements dating back to 1957. Since the data were collected by different expeditions, acquisition methods varied. For more information on the ten-meter data held by NSIDC, see the notes and sources in the table below. The Antarctic mean annual temperature map also contains data points compiled from sources outside NSIDC. For more information on those data sets, please see the publications cited in the 10m_temps_MORE_Dixon.xls file.

Table 2. Ten Meter Temperature Data Traverses
Date Traverse Notes/Sources Maps
British Traverses (map)
1974 Glaciology of the Antarctic Peninsula Program notes/sources traverse image
1970 Inland from Halley Bay notes/sources traverse image
1957-1958 Trans-Antarctic Expedition notes/sources traverse image
Japanese Traverses (map)
1969-1970 Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) 10 and 11 notes/sources traverse image
1972-1973 Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) 12 and 13 notes/sources traverse image
1974-1975 Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) 15 notes/sources traverse image
1968-1969 Syowa-South Pole Traverse notes/sources traverse image
Norwegian Traverses (map)
1996-1997 Norwegian Traverse notes/sources traverse image
United States West Antarctic Traverses (map)
1961-1962 Antarctic Peninsula Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1960-1961 Byrd Station to South Pole Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1958-1959 Ellsworth-Byrd Station Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1960-1961 Ellsworth Highland (Byrd Station to Bellingshausen Sea) Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1957-1958 Filchner Ice Shelf (Ellsworth) Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1957-1958 Little America-Byrd Station Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1958-1959 Marie Byrd Land-Horlick Mountains Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1959-1960 Marie Byrd Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1957-1958 Sentinel Range (Marie Byrd Land) Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1962-1963 South Pole Traverse notes/sources traverse image
United States McMurdo Area Traverses (map)
1958-1959 Little America-Victoria Land Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1960-1961 McMurdo-Pole Traverse notes/sources traverse image
1959-1960 Victoria Land Traverse notes/sources traverse image
United States Queen Maud Land Traverses (map)
1964-1965 South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse I notes/sources traverse image
1965-1966 South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse II notes/sources traverse image
1967-1968 South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse III notes/sources traverse image
United States Ross Ice Shelf Traverses (map)
1974-1978 Ross Ice Shelf Geophysical and Glaciological Survey (RIGGS) notes/sources traverse image
1957-1958 Ross Ice Shelf Traverse notes/sources traverse image

 

5. References and Related Publications

Schneider, D. P., E. J. Steig, T. D. van Ommen, D. A. Dixon, P. A. Mayewski, J. M. Jones, and C. M. Bitz (2006), Antarctic temperatures over the past two centuries from ice cores, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16707, doi:10.1029/2006GL027057.

The following related documents are available on NSIDC's Web site.

Table 3. Related Documents
Document
Description
URL
THERMAP Ice Temperature Measurements of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Project Web site http://nsidc.org/data/thermap/
THERMAP Documentation Related data documentation http://nsidc.org/data/docs/agdc/thermap/documentation.html
THERMAP 10 meter Temperature Data Related data http://nsidc.org/data/thermap/antarctic_10m_temps/


6. Document Information

Acronyms

The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in this document.

Table 4. Acronyms and Abbreviations
FTP File Transfer Protocol
ITASE International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition
NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center
THERMAP Ice Temperature Measurements of the Antarctic Ice Sheet
URL Uniform Resource Locator


Document Creation Date

27 January, 2009

Document URL

http://nsidc.org/data/docs/agdc/nsidc0318_dixon/index.html