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This data set contains concentrations of soluble chemical species (ions) of a 120 m ice core retrieved at the South Pole station in 2001. The ice core was dated with annual resolution using annual layer counting. Investigators measured chemical species, ions, and volcanic deposits found in the cores. The analysis was conducted at South Dakota State University between 2001 and 2003. Data are available in Microsoft Excel or ASCII text format via FTP from NSIDC.
Cole-Dai, J. 2004. Sulfate-Based Volcanic Record from South Pole Ice Cores National Snow and Ice Data Center; Boulder, CO.
|Data format||Microsoft Excel file and ASCII text file|
|Spatial coverage and resolution||90°S|
|Temporal coverage and resolution||Temporal coverage is from 905 A.D. to 2000 A.D. Data are given in yearly increments.|
|File size||739 KB|
|Parameter(s)||Chemical species, ions, and volcanic deposits|
|Procedures for obtaining data||Data are available via FTP.|
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
South Dakota State University
NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449 USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
This work was accomplished under the National Science Federation (NSF) grant # 0087151.
The goal of this project was to analyze shallow (~150 m) ice cores from South Pole to construct an annually resolved, sulfate-based volcanic record covering the last 1400 years. Two shallow ice cores were recovered at the South Pole during the 2000/2001 field season.
Volcanic records from polar ice cores provide valuable information for studies of the connection between volcanism and climate. The information from these records can verify the volcanic events found in the few existing Antarctic records and resolve discrepancies in the timing and magnitude of major explosive eruptions determined from those earlier records.
Data are provided in a Microsoft Excel file and as an ASCII text file.
Temporal coverage is from 905 A.D. to 2000 A.D.
Data are given in yearly increments.
This study measures the chemical species, ions, and volcanic deposits in the ice cores.
Concentrations are given in both microequivalent per liter (ueq/l) and microgram per liter (ug/l) or ppb.
Information (identification, depth) and data for each sample are presented in the same row.
The following table describes the columns in the data file. Note that concentrations for each element are given first in microequivalent per liter (ueq/l) and then in microgram per liter (ug/l) or ppb.
|Sample#||The number assigned to a sample.|
|Year Start||The start of the year sampled.|
|Year-#||Where there are multiple samples in a year, this is the number of sample within the given year.|
|Depth WEQ M (TOP)||Water equivalent at the top of the sample|
|Depth WEQ M (Mid)||Water equivalent at the midpoint of the sample|
|Size cm||Size (in cm) of the sample.|
|Depth (TOP) M||Depth at the top of the sample in meters|
|Depth (MIDDLE) M||Depth at the middle of the sample in meters|
|Density (MIDDLE) kg/cm3|
|MSA||Methane sulfonic acid or Methanesulphonate|
The following sample is taken from the data file:
|Sample#||Year Start||Year-#||Depth WEQ M (TOP)||Depth WEQ M (Mid)||Size cm||Depth (TOP) M||Depth (MIDDLE) M||Density (MIDDLE) kg/cm3||MSA ueq/l||Cl ueq/l||NO3 ueq/l||SO4 ueq/l||Na ueq/l||NH4 ueq/l||K ueq/l||Mg ueq/l||Ca ueq/l||Na/Cl ueq/l||MSA ug/l||NO3 ug/l|
A few samples were contaminated. Concentration data fields are left blank for contaminated samples.
Data are available via FTP.
Discrete or individual ice core samples were cut lengthwise from the 120 m core and analyzed for ion concentrations by ion chromatography.
Budner, D., and J. Cole-Dai. 2003. The number and magnitude of explosive volcanic eruptions between 904 and 1865 A.D.: Quantitative evidence from a new South Pole ice core, in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere. Geophysical Monograph 139. Edited by A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, 10.1029/139GM10, pp 165-176. American Geophysical Union.
The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in this document.
|FTP||File Transfer Protocol|
|NSF||National Science Federation|
|ppb||parts per billion|
|ueq/l||microequivalent per liter|
|ug/1||microgram per liter|