Atlas of the Cryosphere Data Sources

This Web page lists the reference information for the maps and geospatial data contained in the Northern Hemisphere portion of the Atlas of the Cryosphere. Also listed on this page are example requests for Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services—Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS), and Web Coverage Service (WCS). These services enable interoperable and customizable remote access to maps and source data (click here for more details). For the list of Southern Hemisphere references, click here.

Parameter: Data source:
Canadian provinces and territories National Weather Service. 1999. Canadian provinces. Silver Spring, Maryland USA: National Weather Service. Available at http://www.weather.gov/geodata/catalog/national/html/province.htm. 07 September 2006.


cities Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). 2000. World Cities. Series: ESRI Data & Maps. Redlands, California USA: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). Available at http://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/globalgis/. 01 February 2001.


coastlines Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 2005. Gridded Population of the World Version 3 (GPWv3): Coastlines. Palisades, New York USA: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw. 19 January 2007.


countries Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 2005. Gridded Population of the World Version 3 (GPWv3): National Boundaries. Palisades, New York USA: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw. 19 January 2007.


glaciers National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). 1992. VMAP_1V10 - Vector Map Level 0 (Digital Chart of the World). Bethesda, Maryland USA: National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). Available at http://www.maproom.psu.edu/dcw/ and http://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/globalgis/. 01 September 2000.


glacier outlines Armstrong, R., B. Raup, S.J.S. Khalsa, R. Barry, J. Kargel, C. Helm, and H. Kiefer. 2005. GLIMS glacier database. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0272.html. Current Date.


Greenland Climate Network Steffen, K. 03 June 2002. Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) positions available at http://cires.colorado.edu/science/groups/steffen/gcnet/GC-Net_info.txt. 23 January 2007.


Greenland ice core locations
Greenland snow accumulation Bales, R.C., J.R. McConnell, E. Mosley-Thompson, and G. Lamorey. 2001. Accumulation map for the Greenland Ice Sheet: 1971-1990. Geophysical Research Letters. 28(15): 2967-2970. doi:10.1029/2000GL012052. Available at http://zero.eng.ucmerced.edu/rcbales/PARCA/. 24 October 2006.


Greenland surface elevation, bedrock elevation, and ice sheet thickness Bamber, J.L., R.L. Layberry, S.P. Gogenini. 2001. A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1: Measurement, data reduction, and errors. Journal of Geophysical Research. 106(D24): 33773-33780. Data provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado USA. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0092.html. 25 October 2006.

Bamber, J.L., R.L. Layberry, S.P. Gogenini. 2001. A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 2: Relationship between dynamics and basal topography. Journal of Geophysical Research. 106(D24): 33781-33788. Data provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado USA. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0092.html. 25 October 2006.


Greenland surface melt Abdalati, W. 2007. Greenland ice sheet melt characteristics derived from passive microwave data. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital Media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0218.html. 17 July 2007.


North Pole, Geomagnetic World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto. Date unknown. Magnetic North, Geomagnetic and Magnetic Poles. World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto. http://swdcwww.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/poles/polesexp.html. 23 January 2007.


North Pole, Magnetic Geological Survey of Canada. 31 December 2005. Geomagnetism - North Magnetic Pole. Geological Survey of Canada. http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/nmp/northpole_e.php. 23 January 2007.


North Pole of Cold Wikipedia contributors. 23 January 2007. Pole of Cold. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pole_of_Cold&oldid=102629381. 24 January 2007.


North Pole of Inaccessibility Scambos, T. and T. Haran. 2005. Location of the Arctic Pole of Inaccessibility computed from MODIS remote sensing imagery and GPS. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Unpublished.


permafrost extent Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 1998. revised February 2001. Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/ggd318.html. 07 September 2006.


permafrost classification Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 1998. revised February 2001. Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/ggd318.html. 07 September 2006.


satellite imagery Stöckli, R., E. Vermote, N. Saleous, R. Simmon, and D. Herring. 2005. The Blue Marble Next Generation - A true color earth dataset including seasonal dynamics from MODIS. Greenbelt, Maryland USA: NASA Earth Observatory. Digital media. Available at ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/BM/ and http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_set.php?categoryID=2355. 12 September 2007.

sea ice concentration Stroeve, J. and W. Meier. 1999, updated 2005. Sea Ice Trends and Climatologies from SMMR and SSM/I. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/smmr_ssmi_ancillary/monthly_means.html. 13 September 2006.


sea ice extent Stroeve, J. and W. Meier. 1999, updated 2005. Sea Ice Trends and Climatologies from SMMR and SSM/I. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/smmr_ssmi_ancillary/monthly_means.html. 13 September 2006.

NOTE: Sea ice extent includes all areas where sea ice concentration is greater than or equal to 15%.


seasonal snow classification Liston, G.E., and M. Sturm. 1998. Global seasonal snow classification system. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/arcss045.html. 31 August 2006.


snow extent Armstrong, R. L., and M. J. Brodzik. 2005. Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid weekly snow cover and sea ice extent version 3. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0046.html. 02 August 2006.


snow water equivalent Armstrong, R.L., M.J. Brodzik, K. Knowles, and M. Savoie. 2005. Global monthly EASE-Grid snow water equivalent climatology. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0271.html. 30 August 2006.


treeline
(northern limit of forests)
CAVM Team. 2003. Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map. Scale 1:7,500,000. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Map No. 1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska USA. Treeline available at http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cavm/data/treeline_la.zip. 24 August 2006.


U.S. states and territories National Weather Service. 1999. States of the United States. Silver Spring, Maryland USA: National Weather Service. Available at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/geodata/catalog/national/html/us_state.htm. 07 September 2006.