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Looking for facts and information? See About the Cryosphere.
Icelights: Answers to your burning questions about ice and climate
What's hot in the news around climate and sea ice and what are scientists talking about now? Read more...
What is the Cryosphere?
When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
Rainfall rate taken by the WSR-88D radar in Eureka. Image courtesy of David Wolff of Goddard Space Flight Center and the AMSR-E Science Team.
A Next Generation Radar/Weather Surveillance Radar-88 Doppler (NEXRAD/WSR-88D) and a small rain gauge network in Eureka, California USA provided ground validation data for AMSR-E Rainfall Validation efforts. Gauges were installed 24-28 August 2000 in clusters of varying density to determine a best estimate of a true rain rate through measurement redundancy. The WSR-88D radar has a measurement range radius of 150-200 km. It measures instantaneous rain rate, stratiform/convective rain type, and five-day and monthly rain accumulation, in addition to radar reflectivity, with a 2 km resolution for most products.
For more information on NEXRAD, visit the NOAA Radar Operations Center Web site.
AMSR-E Project at NSIDC
Includes AMSR-E data, tools, FAQs, news, research and more
AMSR-E/Aqua Data at NSIDC
Using AMSR-E Soil Moisture Data to Study Extent of March 2004 Flood
Ferraro, R.R., and J.R. McCollum. 2003. Rainfall Over Land from the AMSR-E. DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2003.1293876.
NOAA Radar Operations Center
Information about the NEXRAD Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR-88D)
AMSR-E Science Team Web site
Includes information regarding the AMSR-E instrument, project objectives, validation efforts, data products, publications, and additional resources.