When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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the state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities; distinguished from climate by focusing on short-term (minutes to about 15 days) variations of the atmosphere state.
a condition in which daylight is diffused by multiple reflections between a snow surface and an overcast sky; contrasts vanish, and the observer is unable to distinguish the horizon or any snow surface feature.
created by the World Meteorological Convention and recognized as a special agency of the United Nations in 1951; the WMO consists of more than 185 member countries; and facilitates international cooperation in all aspects of meteorology.
the world-wide, coordinated system of meteorological facilities and services provided by World Meteorological Organization members for the purpose of ensuring that all members obtain the meteorological information required both for operational work and for research; the essential elements of the WWW are: the global observing system, the global data-processing system, and the global telecommunication system.
A type of Pleistocene-age (formed 1.8 million to 10,000 years before present) permafrost that contains a significant amount of organic material with ice content of 5090% by volume. Thawing yedoma is a significant source of atmospheric methane.
A yedoma in Russia shows the thick layer of ice and carbon material exposed along this body of water. --Credit: Vladimir Romanovsky