When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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an area of ocean that extends from the permanent ice zone to the boundary where winter sea ice extent is at a maximum; here, sea ice is present only part of the year; this zone primarily consists of first-year ice.
the cumulative number of degree-days above 0 degrees Celsius, calculated as the arithmetic sum of all the positive and negative mean daily air temperatures (degrees Celsius) for a specific station during the time period between the lowest point in the spring and the highest point the next fall on the cumulative degree-day time curve.
sea ice which has not melted in the first summer of its existence; by the end of the second winter, it attains a thickness of 2 meters (6.6 feet) or more; it stands higher out of the water than first-year ice; summer melting has somewhat smoothed and rounded the hummocks, which accentuation of minor relief by differential melting may have caused others to develop; bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.
alternating bands of light and dark at the firn limit of a glacier; the light bands are usually young and lightest at the highest level up-glacier, becoming increasingly older and darker as they progress down-glacier.
in geology, describes the compressive strength (ability to withstand pushing forces) of soils; results from two internal mechanisms: cohesion between soil particles, and friction caused by contact between particles; variable among different soils.
in meteorology, a term used loosely to distinguish radiation in the visible and near-visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 0.4 to 4.0 microns in wavelength) from longwave (terrestrial) radiation.
(1) an ice particle formed by sublimation of vapor in the atmosphere (2) a collection of loosely bonded ice crystals deposited from the atmosphere; high density snow (greater than 550 kilograms per cubic meter; 34 pounds per cubic foot) is called firn if it is older than one year.