snow

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old snow

deposited snow whose transformation into firn is so far advanced that the original form of the ice crystals can no longer be recognized.
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penitents

the extreme relief of ablation hollows found most often at high altitudes in the tropics; the resulting spikes of snow resemble repentant souls.
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perennial snow

snow that persists on the ground year after year.
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polycrystal

a snowflake composed of many individual ice crystals.
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powder snow

a thin, dry snow surface which is composed of loose, fresh ice crystals.
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puddle

an accumulation of melt water on an ice surface, mainly due to melting snow, but in later stages also to the melting of ice; the initial stage consists of patches of slush.

radius-dependent metamorphism

snow metamorphism that occurs when there are large differences in convex and concave portions of a crystal.
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red algae

algae common on temperate glaciers and perennial snow; its red color sometimes prompts people to call it watermelon snow.
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ripple marks

corrugation on a snow surface caused by wind (as on sand).
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sastrugi

complex, fragile shapes of snow on top of sea ice that resemble sand dunes; they form parallel to the prevailing wind direction; sastrugi can also form on snow cover over land.
Sastrugi at South Pole Station, Antarctica. (Photo courtesy of Fred Walton, NOAA Corps Collection.)
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