sea ice

congelation ice

an advanced form of new ice that forms as a stable sheet with a smooth bottom surface.
A photograph in natural light of the vertically oriented pores in congelation ice. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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close pack ice

composed of close ice that is mostly in contact; ice cover 7/10ths to 9/10ths.
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bummocks

smooth hills of ice that form on the bottom of sea ice from eroding keels, particularly during the summer melt.
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brine

small droplets of highly saline water that form in pockets between ice crystals, as sea ice forms and expels salt into the underlying ocean water.
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brash ice

accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters (6.6 feet) across, the wreckage of other forms of ice.
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blind lead

a lead closed off on all sides within the ice pack.
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bight

an extensive crescent-shaped indentation in the ice edge, formed either by wind or current.
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beset

situation of a vessel surrounded by ice and unable to move.
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belt

a long area of pack ice from a few km to more than 100 kilometers in width.
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Beaufort Gyre

an ocean and ice circulation pattern in the Beaufort Sea, north of Alaska. This gyre moves in a clockwise direction, fed by an average high-pressure system that fosters anti-cyclonic winds. Ice that forms in or drifts into the Beaufort Gyre has historically remained in the Arctic ice system for years, accumulating snow and thickening each winter. Beginning in the late 1990s, the ice began melting away while in the southern parts of the gyre, before completing the circulation.
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