sea ice

hostile ice

from the point of view of the submariner, an ice canopy containing no large ice skylights or other features which permit a submarine to surface.
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grey-white ice

a category of young ice 15 to 30 centimeters (6 to 12 inches) thick, named for its color.
Thin grey-white ice showing the effects of ridging and rafting. (Photo courtesy of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate program (ASPeCt).)
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grease ice

a very thin, soupy layer of frazil crystals clumped together, which makes the ocean surface resemble an oil slick.
Grease ice (thin, light-grey area) with thick ice floes. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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frost flowers

crystals of ice that form when water vapor becomes a solid (bypassing the liquid phase) and deposits itself on the sea ice surface; frost flowers roughen the surface and dramatically affect its electromagnetic signal.
Close-up view of frost flowers. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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friendly ice

from the point of view of the submariner, an icey canopy containing many large ice skylights or other features which permit a submarine to surface; there must be more than ten such features per 37 kilometers (30 nautical miles) along the submarine's track.
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frazil ice

fine spicules or plates of ice in suspension in water.
Frazil crystals. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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frazil

small needle-like ice crystals, typically 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, suspended in water, that represent the first stages of sea ice growth; they merge under calm conditions to form thin sheets of ice on the surface, frazil crystals consist of nearly pure fresh water.
Frazil crystals. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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flooded sea ice

ice that is pushed into the underlying ocean water by the weight of thick snow cover on its surface; the salty ocean water floods the snow cover and creates a salty, slushy layer; flooded sea ice is more common in the antarctic because of more snowfall and thinner sea ice than in the arctic.
(Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, Unites States Naval Academy.)
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floe

separate patch of floating ice or flat sheet of unbroken pack ice, greater than 20 meters (22 yards) across.

floating ice

any form of ice found floating in water.

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