sea ice

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rafted ice

deformed sea ice in which one piece has overridden another; also called telescoped ice.
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rafting

a process by which currents or winds push around thin ice so they slide over each other; also called finger rafting.
Nilas showing finger rafting. (Photo courtesy of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate program (ASPeCt).)
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ram

a horizontal underwater projection of ice from an ice front, ice wall, iceberg or floe.
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recurring polynya

irregularly shaped areas of persistent open water that are sustained by winds or ocean heat; they often occur near coasts, fast ice, or ice shelves.
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ridge ice

piled ice formed by ridging.
Ridged sea ice. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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ridging

process that occurs when wind, ocean currents, and other forces push sea ice around into piles that rise and form small mountains above the level sea ice surface; ridges are initially thin and transparent with very sharp edges from blocks of ice piling up; also see keels.
Ridged sea ice. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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rotten ice

floating ice which has become honeycombed in the course of melting, and which is in an advanced state of disintegration.

sail

the part of a ridge above sea level; like a sail on a sailboat, it catches wind and moves the ice.
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salinity

(1) a general property of aqueous solutions caused by the alkali, alkaline earth, and metal salts of strong acids (Cl, SO4 and NO3) that are not hydrolyzed (2) in soil science, the ratio of the weight of salt in a soil sample to the total weight of the sample.

sastrugi

complex, fragile shapes of snow on top of sea ice that resemble sand dunes; they form parallel to the prevailing wind direction; sastrugi can also form on snow cover over land.
Sastrugi at South Pole Station, Antarctica. (Photo courtesy of Fred Walton, NOAA Corps Collection.)
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