sea ice

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lead

long, linear areas of open water that range from a few meters to over a kilometer in width, and tens of kilometers long; they develop as ice diverges, or pulls apart.
Lead that developed through the middle of an Arctic camp site. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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lead shore

a lead that forms between drift ice and the coast.
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level ice

floating ice with a flat surface which has never been hummocked.
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marginal ice zone

a part of the seasonal ice zone that varies in width (100 to 200 kilometers, 62 to 124 miles) that extends from the ice edge into the ice pack, where waves and swells affect the ice; often characterized by highly variable ice conditions; in general, it is wider in the Antarctic than the Arctic.
A scenic view within the marginal ice zone.
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melt ponds

pools of melted snow and ice on the sea ice surface created during the summer melt.
Scientist taking measurements in a melt pond. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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multiyear ice

ice that has survived at least one melt season; it is typically 2 to 4 meters (6.6 to 13.1 feet) thick and thickens as more ice grows on its underside.
Multiyear ice. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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new ice

a general category of ice that consists of frazil, grease ice, slush, and shuga.
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nilas

a thin sheet of smooth, level ice less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; appear darkest when thin.
Nilas are the dark sheets of ice near the bottom of the photo. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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nip

ice is said to nip when it forcibly presses against a ship which is beset; a vessel so caught, though undamaged, is said to have been nipped.
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old ice

sea ice more than 2-years-old, up to 3 meters (10 feet) or more thick; hummocks on old ice are even smoother than in second-year ice, and the ice is almost salt-free; when old ice is bare of snow, it is blue and lacks the greenish tint of second-year ice.
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