sea ice

sikussak

very old, thick sea ice that forms in fjords; it often resembles glacial ice, because snow can pile up on the ice over many years.
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shuga

a form of new ice, composed of spongy, white lumps a few cm across, that tend to form in rough seas; they resemble slushy snow balls.
(Photo courtesy of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate program (ASPeCt).)
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shore lead

a stretch of navigable water between pack ice and the shore.
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sensible heat polynya

a polynya that forms from the upwelling of warm (above-freezing) ocean water from lower depths; these can form in mid-ocean areas, far from coasts or other barriers.
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second-year ice

sea ice which has not melted in the first summer of its existence; by the end of the second winter, it attains a thickness of 2 meters (6.6 feet) or more; it stands higher out of the water than first-year ice; summer melting has somewhat smoothed and rounded the hummocks, which accentuation of minor relief by differential melting may have caused others to develop; bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.
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seasonal ice zone

an area of ocean that extends from the permanent ice zone to the boundary where winter sea ice extent is at a maximum; here, sea ice is present only part of the year; this zone primarily consists of first-year ice.
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sea ice minimum extent

the day of the year when the sea ice covers the smallest area of the Arctic or Antarctic
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sea ice maximum extent

the day of the year when the sea ice covers the largest area of the Arctic or Antarctic.
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sea ice extent

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sea ice development stage

A phrase used to classify sea ice for operational purposes using the age of the ice as a proxy for its thickness. Specific terms such as new ice, nilas, young ice, and multiyear ice are used for each stage of sea ice development.
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