When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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very old, thick sea ice that forms in fjords; it often resembles glacial ice, because snow can pile up on the ice over many years.
sea ice which has not melted in the first summer of its existence; by the end of the second winter, it attains a thickness of 2 meters (6.6 feet) or more; it stands higher out of the water than first-year ice; summer melting has somewhat smoothed and rounded the hummocks, which accentuation of minor relief by differential melting may have caused others to develop; bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.
an area of ocean that extends from the permanent ice zone to the boundary where winter sea ice extent is at a maximum; here, sea ice is present only part of the year; this zone primarily consists of first-year ice.
A phrase used to classify sea ice for operational purposes using the age of the ice as a proxy for its thickness. Specific terms such as new ice, nilas, young ice, and multiyear ice are used for each stage of sea ice development.