sea ice

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congelation ice

an advanced form of new ice that forms as a stable sheet with a smooth bottom surface.
A photograph in natural light of the vertically oriented pores in congelation ice. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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consolidated pack ice

pack ice in which the floes are frozen together; ice cover 10/10ths.
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crack

any fracture or rift in floating ice not sufficiently wide to be described as a lead.
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dirty ice

ice that contains sediments stirred up and tangled in the ice as it grows.
(Photo courtesy of Terry Whitledge, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce.)
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drift ice

ice that moves from winds, currents, or other forces.
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drift of ice

displacement of a sea ice field from its place of origin under the effect of ocean currents and winds.

drifting stations

research stations on the floes of the arctic ocean.

fast ice

ice that is anchored to the shore or ocean bottom, typically over shallow ocean shelves at continental margins; fast ice is defined by the fact that it does not move with the winds or currents.
Note: This is land fast ice. (Photo courtesy of Michael Van Woert, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce.)
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finger rafting

a process by which currents or winds push around thin ice so they slide over each other.
Nilas showing finger rafting. (Photo courtesy of Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt).)
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first-year ice

floating ice of no more than one year's growth developing from young ice; thickness from 0.3 to 2 meters (1 to 6.6 feet); characteristically level where undisturbed by pressure, but where ridges occur, they are rough and sharply angular.
(Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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