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land covered in the past by any form of glacier is said to be glaciated.


a mass of ice that originates on land, usually having an area larger than one tenth of a square kilometer; many believe that a glacier must show some type of movement; others believe that a glacier can show evidence of past or present movement.
Taku Glacier winds through the mountains of southeastern Alaska, calving small icebergs into Taku Inlet. This photograph dates from 1929. (Photo courtesy of the U. S. Navy, archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)

glacier cave

a cave of ice, usually underneath a glacier and formed by meltwater; cave entrances are often enlarged near a glacier terminus by warm winds; most common on stagnant portions of glaciers.
A small stream flows from the glacier cave at the terminus of Arolla Glacier in the Pennine Alps. Photograph from 1902. (Photo courtesy of H.F. Reid, archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)

glacier fire

a phenomenon in which strong reflection of the sun on an icy surface causes a glacier to look like it is on fire.

glacier flood

a sudden outburst of water released by a glacier.

glacier flour

a fine powder of silt- and clay-sized particles that a glacier creates as its rock-laden ice scrapes over bedrock; usually flushed out in meltwater streams and causes water to look powdery gray; lakes and oceans that fill with glacier flour may develop a banded appearance; also called rock flour.

glacier ice

well-bonded ice crystals compacted from snow with a bulk density greater than 860 kilograms per cubic-meter (55 pounds per cubic-foot).

glacier mill

a nearly vertical channel in ice that is formed by flowing water; usually found after a relatively flat section of glacier in a region of transverse crevasses.

glacier pothole

potholes formed at the bottom of glaciers through erosion caused by sand and gravel in melt-water; melt-water seeps through crevasses in the glaciers, sometimes forming whirpools; at the bottom of the glacier, the water is under very high pressure, leading to erosion of underlying rocks.

glacier remainie

a glacier that is reconstructed or reconstituted out of other glacier material; usually formed by seracs falling from a hanging glacier, then re-adhering; also called reconstituted, reconstructed or regenerated glacier.