glaciers

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forel stripes

shallow, parallel grooves on the face of a large melting ice crystal.
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free water

free water is that portion of the pore water that is free to move between interconnected pores under the influence of gravity.
Free water at the base of Dirt Glacier, British Columbia, in 1904. (Photo courtesy of C.W. Wright. Archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)

geyser

fountain that develops when water from a conduit is forced up to the surface of a glacier; also called a negative mill.
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glacial advance

when a mountain glacier's terminus extends farther downvalley than before; occurs when a glacier flows downvalley faster than the rate of ablation at its terminus.
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glacial erratic

a boulder swept from its place of origin by glacier advance or retreat and deposited elsewhere as the glacier melted; after glacial melt, the boulder might be stranded in a field or forest where no other rocks of its type or size exist.
Erratic boulder, northeastern Manitoba, Canada. A sense of the size of the glacial erratic can be estimated by noting the person standing in front of the boulder, on the left side. This erratic, as well as neighboring ones, were carried by the Keewatian Ice Sheet. (Photo courtesy of Lynda Dredge, Natural Resources Canada. Copyright Terrain Sciences Division, Geological Survey of Canada.)
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glacial grooves

grooves or gouges cut into the bedrock by gravel and rocks carried by glacial ice and meltwater; also called glacial striations.
Striated Graywackie, Yale Glacier, Alaska. 1997. Parallel striations and bedrock fracture trends (across the left side of the image) are clearly visible in this photo. (Photo courtesy of Tom Lowell, University of Cincinnati.)
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glacial retreat

when the position of a mountain glacier's terminus is farther upvalley than before; occurs when a glacier ablates more material at its terminus than it transports into that region.
Muir Glacier, Glacier Bay National Park and Reserve's White Thunder Ridge as seen on August 13, 1941 (left) and August 31, 2004 (right). (2004 photo courtesy of B. Molnia, USGS; 1941 photo courtesy of W. Field. Archived in the Long-Term Change Photograph Pairs Special Collection in the Glacier Photograph Database.)
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glacial striations

grooves or gouges cut into the bedrock by gravel and rocks carried by glacial ice and meltwater; also called glacial grooves.
Striated Graywackie, Yale Glacier, Alaska. 1997. Parallel striations and bedrock fracture trends (across the left side of the image) are clearly visible in this photo. (Photo courtesy of Tom Lowell, University of Cincinnati.)
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glacial till

accumulations of unsorted, unstratified mixtures of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders; the usual composition of a moraine.
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glacial trough

a large u-shaped valley formed from a v-shaped valley by glacial erosion.
Western Brook glacial trough, Newfoundland, Canada. The sheer walls of this glacial trough soar up to 700 m high, and the glacial basin is 500 m deep in places. (Photo courtesy of Natural Resources Canada. Copyright Terrain Sciences Division, Geological Survey of Canada.)
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