frozen ground or permafrost

thaw consolidation ratio

a dimensionless ratio describing the relationship between the rate of thaw and the rate of consolidation of a thawing soil, which is considered to be a measure of the relative rates of generation and expulsion of excess water during thaw.

thaw consolidation

time-dependent compression resulting from thawing of frozen ground and subsequent draining of excess water.

thaw bulb

a zone of thawed ground below or surrounding a man-made structure placed on or in permafrost and maintained at temperatures above 0 degrees Celsius.

temperature profile

the graphic or analytical expression of the variation in ground temperature with depth.


a layer or body of unfrozen ground occurring in a permafrost area due to a local anomaly in thermal, hydrological, hydrogeological, or hydrochemical conditions.

syngenetic permafrost

permafrost that formed through a rise of the permafrost table during the deposition of additional sediment or other earth material on the ground surface.

syngenetic ice wedge

an ice wedge developed during the formation of syngenetic permafrost.

syngenetic ice

ground ice developed during the formation of syngenetic permafrost.

surface freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0 degrees Celsius for the surface temperature (of the ground, pavement, etc.) during a given time period.

surface cryogenic fabric

a distinct soil micromorphology, resulting from the effects of freezing and thawing processes, in which coarser soil particles have vertical or near-vertical orientation.


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