frozen ground or permafrost

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cryogenic aquiclude

a layer of ground which, because of its frozen state, has a low enough permeability to act as a confining bed for an aquifer.

cryogenic fabric

the distinct soil micromorphology resulting from the effects of freezing and thawing processes.

cryogenic temperature

in international materials science, this term refers to temperatures generally below -50 degrees Celsius, but usually to temperatures within a few degrees of absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius).


the study of the genesis, structure and lithology of frozen earth materials.


the study of soils at temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, with particular reference to soils subject to intensive frost action, and to soils overlying permafrost.


a layer of unfrozen ground that is perennially cryotic (forming part of the permafrost), in which freezing is prevented by freezing-point depression due to the dissolved-solids content of the pore water.


the process through which cryoplanation terraces form.

cryoplanation terrace

a step-like or table-like bench cut in bedrock in cold climate regions.


soil formed in either mineral or organic materials having permafrost either within 1 meter (3.3 feet) below the surface or, if the soil is strongly cryoturbated, within 2 meters (6.6 feet) below the surface, and having a mean annual ground temperature below 0 degrees Celsius.


the structural characteristics of frozen earth materials.