frozen ground or permafrost

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two-phase thermosyphon

a passive heat transfer device, filled with a temperature-dependent liquid/vapour combination, installed to remove heat from the ground.

unfrozen ground

soil or rock that does not contain any ice.

unfrozen water content

the amount of unfrozen (liquid) water contained in frozen soil or rock.

uniaxial compression test

a method to determine the short-term strength of rocks; conducted by employing a constant loading rate until failure; the failure load is used to calculate the failure stress; can also be used to determine the elastic constants of rocks (i.e. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio).

upward freezing

the advance of a freezing front upwards from the permafrost table during annual freezing of the active layer.

vein ice

a comprehensive term for ice of any origin occupying cracks in permafrost.

volumetric (total) water content

the ratio of the volume of the water and ice in a sample to the volume of the whole sample, expressed as a fraction (or, less commonly, as a percentage).

volumetric heat capacity

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit volume of a substance by one degree.

volumetric latent heat of fusion

the amount of heat required to melt all the ice (or freeze all the pore water) in a unit volume of soil or rock.

waterbody encircling a palsa

a water-filled depression surrounding a palsa.

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