frozen ground or permafrost

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bottom temperature of snow cover

temperature measured at the base of the snow cover during mid- to late-winter (February/March).

BTS method

method to predict the presence or absence of permafrost in a mountain area, using measurements of the bottom temperature of snow cover mid- to late-winter.

buried ice

ice formed or deposited on the ground surface and later covered by sediments.

cave ice

ice formed in a closed or open cave.

close cavity ice

ice formed in a closed space, cavity or cave in permafrost.

closed talik

a layer or body of unfrozen ground occupying a depression in the permafrost table below a lake or river.

closed-system freezing

freezing that occurs under conditions that preclude the gain or loss of any water by the system.

closed-system pingo

a pingo formed by doming of frozen ground due to freezing of injected water supplied by expulsion of pore water during permafrost aggradation in the closed talik under a former water body.

coefficient of compressibility

decrease in volume per unit volume of a substance resulting from a unit increase in pressure, under isothermic conditions.

collapse scar

that portion of a peatland where the whole or part of a palsa or peat plateau has thawed and collapsed to the level of the surrounding peatland.