frozen ground or permafrost

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adfreeze/adfreezing

the process by which two objects are bonded together by ice formed between them.

aggradational ice

the additional ground ice formed as a direct result of permafrost aggradation.

air freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0° C for the air temperature during a given time period.

air thawing index

the cumulative number of degree-days above 0°C for the air temperature during a given period.

alas/alass

a large depression of the ground surface produced by thawing of a large area of very thick and exceedingly ice-rich permafrost.

altitudinal limit of permafrost

the lowest altitude at which mountain permafrost occurs in a given highland area outside the general permafrost region.

altitudinal zonation of permafrost

the vertical subdivision of an area of mountain permafrost into permafrost zones, based on the proportion of the ground that is perennially cryotic.

anti-syngenetic ice wedge

an ice wedge that grows progressively downwards into a receding slope, in a direction normal (perpendicular) to the surface.

apparent head capacity

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of frozen ground by one degree.

approximate freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0 degrees Celsius for a given time period, calculated from the mean monthly temperatures for a specific station without making corrections for positive degree-days in spring and fall.

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