frozen ground or permafrost

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active air-cooled thermal pile

a foundation pile on which a cold air refrigeration system has been installed to remove heat from the ground.

active construction methods in permafrost

special design and construction methods used for engineering works in permafrost areas where permafrost degradation cannot be prevented.

active ice wedge

an ice wedge that is growing as a result of repeated (but not necessarily annual) winter cracking.

active layer

the layer of ground that is subject to annual thawing and freezing in areas underlain by permafrost; also known as seasonal frost.

active liquid refrigerant pile

a foundation pile on which a liquid coolant refrigeration system has been installed to remove heat from the ground.

active rock glacier

a mass of rock fragments and finer material, on a slope, that contains either an ice core or interstitial ice, and shows evidence of present movement.

active thermokarst

the process by which characteristic landforms are currently developing as a result of thawing of ice-rich permafrost or melting of massive ice.

active-layer failure

a general term referring to several forms of slope failures or failure mechanisms commonly occurring in the active layer overlying permafrost.

active-layer thickness

the thickness of the layer of the ground that is subject to annual thawing and freeing in areas underlain by permafrost.

adfreeze strength

the tensile or shear strength which has to be overcome to separate two objects that are bonded together by ice.

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