climatology and meteorology

semipermanent anticyclone

high pressure area largely predominate during a major portion of the year where an anticyclone appears on the mean monthly pressure charts.

seasonal thawing index

the cumulative number of degree-days above 0 degrees Celsius, calculated as the arithmetic sum of all the positive and negative mean daily air temperatures (degrees Celsius) for a specific station during the time period between the lowest point in the spring and the highest point the next fall on the cumulative degree-day time curve.

seasonal freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0 degrees Celsius, calculated as the arithmetic sum of all the negative and positive mean daily air temperatures (degrees Celsius) for a specific station during the time period between the highest point in the fall and the lowest point the next spring on the cumulative degree-day time curve.

sea-level pressure

the atmospheric pressure at mean sea level, either directly measured or, most commonly, empirically determined from the observed station pressure.

sea surface temperature

temperature of the water film at the sea surface.

sea smoke

evaporation fog formed when water vapor is added to air which is much colder than the vapor's source; most commonly, when very cold air drifts across relatively warm water; also called steam fog.

scale

(1) a series of marks at regular intervals for the purpose of measuring (scale of an instrument, for example, a thermometer) (2) system of units for measuring ( 3) proportion between the size of something and the map, diagram, etc. which represents it (4) order of magnitude of a phenomenon or of a meteorological parameter.

saturation vapor pressure (water)

the maximum amount of water vapor necessary to keep moist air in equilibrium with a surface of pure water; this is the maximum water vapor the air can hold for any given combination of temperature and pressure.

saturation

the condition in which the partial pressure of any fluid constituent (water in the atmospheric air) is equal to its maximum possible partial pressure under the existing environmental conditions, such that any increase in the amount of that constituent will initiate within it a change to a more condensed state; evaporation ceases under such conditions.

rime

a white or milky and opaque granular deposit of ice formed by the rapid freezing of super-cooled water drops as they impinge upon an exposed object; it is denser and harder than hoarfrost, but lighter, softer, and less transparent than glaze.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - climatology and meteorology