climatology and meteorology

snow pellets

precipitation in the form of small, white opaque ice particles; resemble ice grains, but are round (sometimes conical) and about 2-5 mm in diameter.

snow grains

precipitation in the form of very small, white opaque ice particles; they resemble snow pellets but are more flattened and elongated, with a diameter less than 1 mm; the solid equivalent of drizzle.

snow cover

(1) in general, the accumulation of snow on the ground surface (2) the areal extent of snow-covered ground, usually expressed as percent of total area in a given region.

smog

currently used as a synonym for general air pollution; it was originally created by combining the words smoke and fog.

sleet

(1) (United States) frozen raindrops that bind on impact with the ground (2) (elsewhere) a mix of rain and snow, a mix of rain and hail, or melting snow.

Siberian high

an area of high pressure which forms over Siberia in winter, and which is particularly apparent on mean charts of sea-level pressure.

shortwave radiation

in meteorology, a term used loosely to distinguish radiation in the visible and near-visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 0.4 to 4.0 microns in wavelength) from longwave (terrestrial) radiation.

shield

a screen to shield a rain-gauge from the influence of the wind, or to shield a thermometer against insolation.

sensible heat

same as enthalpy; the heat absorbed or transmitted by a substance during a change of temperature which is not accompanied by a change of state; used in meteorology in contrast to latent heat.

semipermanent depression

slowly moving or motionless cyclone.

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