climatology and meteorology

absolute humidity

(1) the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the volume occupied by a mixture of water vapor and dry air (2) mass of water contained in a unit volume of moist air.

ablation

(1) combined processes (such as sublimation, fusion or melting, evaporation) which remove snow or ice from the surface of a glacier or from a snow-field; also used to express the quantity lost by these processes (2) reduction of the water equivalent of a snow cover by melting, evaporation, wind and avalanches.

anabatic wind

any wind blowing up a steep incline or mountain; the opposite of katabatic wind.

air thawing index

the cumulative number of degree-days above 0°C for the air temperature during a given period.

air freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0° C for the air temperature during a given time period.

accumulation

all processes by which snow or ice are added to a glacier, this is typically the accumulation of snow, which is slowly transformed into ice; other accumulation processes can include avalanches, wind-deposited snow, and the freezing of rain within the snow pack.

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