climatology and meteorology

tropopause

the boundary layer between the troposphere and stratosphere, where an abrupt change in temperature lapse rate usually occurs; it is defined as the lowest level at which the lapse rate decreases to 2 degrees Celsius per kilometer or less, provided that the average lapse rate between this level and all higher levels within 2 kilometers does not exceed 2 degrees Celsius per kilometer; occasionally, a second tropopause may be found if the lapse rate above the first tropopause exceeds 3 degrees Celsius per kilometer.

thermometer

an instrument for measuring temperature; in meteorology, generally used to measure the temperature of the air or the soil.

thermograph

an instrument continuously recording temperature.

Tropic of Capricorn

the southern parallel of maximum solar declination, approximately 23° 27′ S latitude; the farthest southern latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead, which occurs on the day of the summer solstice.

Tropic of Cancer

the northern parallel of maximum solar declination, approximately 23° 27′ N latitude; the farthest northern latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead, which occurs on the day of the summer solstice.

total annual thawing index

the cumulative number of degree-days, calculated by adding all the positive mean daily air temperatures (degrees Celsius) for a specific station during a calendar year.

total annual freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days, calculated by adding all the negative mean daily air temperatures (degrees Celsius) for a specific station during a calendar year.

timber line

(1) in mountainous regions, the line above which climatic conditions do not allow the upright growth of trees (2) the poleward limit of tree growth, also known as the tree line.

theodolite

an optical instrument used to visually track a radiosonde balloon and determine its bearing and elevation while in flight.

terrestrial radiation

longwave radiation emitted by the earth, including its atmosphere.

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