When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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an instrument which measures wind speed or wind speed and direction; a cup anemometer measures the wind speed from the speed of rotation of a windmill which consist of 3 or 4 hemispherical or conical cups, each fixed to the ends of horizontal arms attached to a vertical axis; a byram anemometer is a variety of the cup anemometer; a counting anemometer has cups or a fan whose rotation is transmitted to a technical counter which integrates directly the air movement speed; a hand anemometer is small portable anemometer held at arm's length by an observer making a wind speed measurement; a pressure tube anemometer (dines anemometer) is an instrument which derives wind speed from measurements of the dynamic wind pressures - wind blowing into a tube develops a pressure greater than the static pressure, while wind blowing across a tube develops a pressure less than the static, this pressure difference is proportional to the square of the wind speed.
an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure; it is constructed on the following principles: an aneroid capsule (vidie capsule, which is a thin, disk-shaped box or capsule, usually metallic) is partially evacuated of gas, and is restrained from collapsing by an external or internal spring; the deflection of the spring will be nearly proportional to the difference between the internal and external pressures; magnification of the spring deflection is obtained both by connecting capsules in series and by mechanical linkages.
also known as the antarctic convergence; the southern front of the antarctic circumpolar current that separates the antarctic zone in the south from the polar frontal zone in the north; taken by many to delineate the actual northern boundary of the antarctic zone; characterized by sea surface temperatures near 5°6° C and a salinity minimum of 33.834.0 psu produced by high rainfall.
the region between the antarctic circle (66° 34′ S) and the South Pole; climatically, the limit of the zone may be set at about 60° S, poleward of which the prevailing westerly winds give place to easterly or variable winds; over most of this region the average temperature does not rise above 0°C (32°F) even in summer.
area of increased atmospheric pressure relative to surrounding pressure field in the atmosphere; outlined by closed isobars on a synoptic surface chart, and by closed contours on a constant-pressure chart; used interchangeably with high..