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Icelights: Answers to your burning questions about ice and climate
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What is the Cryosphere?
When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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Barr, W. 1985. The Expeditions of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83 The Arctic Institute of North America. Technical Paper No. 29:1-5.
Barr, W. 1983. Geographical Aspects of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83. Annal of the Association of American Geographers 73(4):463-484.
Bramwell, Martyn. 1998. Polar Exploration: Journeys to the Arctic and Antarctic. DK Discoveries Publishing, Inc., New York.
Crane, K., Galasso, J.L. 1999. Arctic Environmental Atlas. Office of Naval Research. Naval Research Laboratory. Hunter College.
Holland, Clive. 1994. Farthest North: A History of North Polar Exploration in Eye-Witness Accounts. Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., New York.
Laursen, V. 1982. The Second International Polar Year (1932/33). World Meteorological Organization Bulletin 31(3):214-222.
Leary, W.M., LeSchack, L.A. 1996. Project Coldfeet: Secret Mission to a Soviet Ice Station. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland.
Nicolet, M. 1982. The International Geophysical Year (1957/58). World Meteorological Organization Bulletin 31(3):222-227.
Sater, John E. 1968. Arctic Drifting Stations: A Report on Activities Supported by the Office of Naval Research. Proceedings of the Symposium held at Airlie Conference Center, Warrenton, Virginia, 12-15 April 1966 under the auspices of The Arctic Institute of North America and the Office of Naval Research, U.S. Navy.