Entry_ID: NSIDC-0290
Entry_Title: Firn Air Inert Gas and Oxygen Observations from Siple Dome, 1996, and the South Pole, 2001
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Jeffery P. Severinghaus
   Dataset_Title: Firn Air Inert Gas and Oxygen Observations from Siple Dome, 1996, and the South Pole, 2001
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2006-08-17
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0290.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5FJ2DQC
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jeffrey
   Middle_Name: P.
   Last_Name: Severinghaus
   Email: jseveringhaus@ucsd.edu
   Phone: 1 858 822.2483 
   Fax: 1 858  822.3310 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Scripps Institution of Oceanography
      Address: 9500 Gilman Dr.
      City: La Jolla
      Province_or_State: CA
      Postal_Code: 92037-0244
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mark
   Last_Name: Battle
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Bowdoin College,
      Address: Brunswick, Maine
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Michael
   Last_Name: Bender
   Email: bender@princeton.edu
   Phone: 1 609 258-2936 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Princeton University
      Address: Department of Geosciences
      Address: M48 Guyot Hall
      City: Princeton
      Province_or_State: NJ
      Postal_Code: 08544
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Firn
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Isotopes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Chemistry
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Isotopes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Paleoclimate
   Term: Ice Core Records
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Core Air Bubbles
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Chemistry
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Antarctica
Keyword: Atmospheric Gases
Keyword: Firn Air Isotope Measurements
Keyword: Firn Air Isotopes
Keyword: Firn Isotopes
Keyword: Gas Isotopes
Keyword: Ice Core
Keyword: Ice Core Chemistry
Keyword: Ice Core Data
Keyword: Ice Core Gas Records
Keyword: Polar Firn Air
Keyword: Shallow Firn Air
Keyword: Siple Dome
Keyword: South Pole
Keyword: Thermal Fractionation
Keyword: Trapped Air Bubbles
Keyword: Trapped Gases
Sensor_Name: CORING DEVICES
Sensor_Name: FLASKS
Sensor_Name: MASS SPECTROMETERS
Source_Name: GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 2001-01-21
   Stop_Date: 2001-01-21
End_Group
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1996-12-15
   Stop_Date: 1996-12-21
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -80.667
   Northernmost_Latitude: -80.667
   Westernmost_Longitude: -148.767
   Easternmost_Longitude: -148.767
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: -90
   Westernmost_Longitude: 0
   Easternmost_Longitude: 0
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: AGDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: AGDC > Antarctic Glaciological Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/agdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: AGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 177 KB
   Distribution_Format: Microsoft Excel
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 975 KB
   Distribution_Format: PDF
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Bender, M. L., T. Sowers, J. -M. Barnola, and J. Chappellaz. 1994. Changes in 
   the O2/N2 ratio of the atmosphere during recent decades reflected in the 
   composition of air in the firn at Vostok Station, Antarctica. Geophysical 
   Research Letters 21 189–192. 

   Bender, M. L., P. P. Tans, J. T. Ellis, J. Orchardo, and K. Habfast. 1994. A 
   high-precision isotope ratio mass-spectrometry method for measuring the O2/N2 
   ratio of air. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58 4751–4758.

   Bender, M. L., D. T. Ho, M. B. Hendricks, R. Mika, M. O. Battle, P. P. Tans, 
   T. J. Conway, B. Sturtevant, and N. Cassar. 2005. Atmospheric O2/ N2 changes, 
   1993–2002: implications for the partitioning of fossil fuel CO2 sequestration. 
   Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 GB4017.

   Severinghaus, J. P., A. Grachev, B. Luz, and N. Caillon. 2003. A method for 
   precise measurement of argon 40/36 and krypton/argon ratios in trapped air in 
   polar ice with applications to past firn thickness and abrupt climate change 
   in Greenland and at Siple Dome, Antarctica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67 
   325–343.

   Severinghaus, J. P., and M. O. Battle. 2006. Fractionation of gases in polar 
   ice during bubble close-off: new constraints from firn air Ne, Kr and Xe 
   observations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters EPSL-08011.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set includes gas ratios in polar firn air: 
   O2/N2, 15N/14N, 
   40Ar/N2, 40Ar/36Ar, 
   40Ar/38Ar, 84Kr/36Ar, 
   132Xe/36Ar, and 22Ne/36Ar. 
   Investigators sampled air from the permeable snowpack (firn) layer at two 
   sites: Siple Dome, Antarctica in 1996 and at the South Pole in 2001. They 
   observed and modeled the processes of gravitational settling, thermal 
   fractionation, and preferential exclusion of small gas molecules from closed 
   air bubbles. The purpose of this study was to understand these physical 
   processes, which affect the composition of bubbles trapped in ice. By 
   measuring these gas ratios in the ancient air  preserved in  bubbles trapped 
   in ice, researchers can determine past atmospheric composition and local 
   temperature changes along with the relative timing and  magnitude of such 
   events.

   The data file is available in Microsoft Excel format.  The research paper is 
   available in PDF. Data and the research paper are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0098.html
   Description: Firn Air Isotope and Temperature Measurements from Siple Dome and South Pole
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0123.html
   Description: Siple Dome Core Data from Measurements of the d18O of Paleoatmospheric O2
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0251.html
   Description: Siple Dome Ice Core Chemistry and Ion Data
End_Group
IDN_Node: AMD/US
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2006-08-17
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-03-14
DIF_Revision_History: Removed USADCC logo for Search cleanup.