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	   gmd:Hierarchy_Level_Name:  NASA SCP Arctic and Antarctic Ice Extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2009
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	                  gmd:postalCode:  80309-0449
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	      Date:  2014-04-17
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	   gmd:DataSet_URI:  http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0265.html
	   gmd:Identification_Information:  
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	         gmd:citation:  
	            gmd:CI_Citation:  
	               gmd:title:  NASA SCP Arctic and Antarctic Ice Extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2009
	               gmd:date:  
	                  gmd:CI_Date:  
	                     gmd:date:  2013
	                     gmd:dateType:  
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	               gmd:edition:  2
	               gmd:editionDate:  
	                  gmd:Date:  2013-04-03
	               gmd:identifier:  NSIDC-0265
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	                     gmd:organisationName:  NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
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	                              gmd:voice:  1 303 492-6199 
	                           gmd:address:  
	                              gmd:deliveryPoint:  National Snow and Ice Data Center
	                              gmd:city:  Boulder
	                              gmd:administrativeArea:  CO
	                              gmd:postalCode:  80309-0449
	                              gmd:country:  USA
	                              gmd:electronicMailAddress:  nsidc@nsidc.org
	                           gmd:onlineResource:  
	                              gmd:CI_OnlineResource:  
	                                 gmd:linkage:  http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
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	                              gmd:voice:  1 303 492-6199 
	                           gmd:address:  
	                              gmd:deliveryPoint:  National Snow and Ice Data Center
	                              gmd:city:  Boulder
	                              gmd:administrativeArea:  CO
	                              gmd:postalCode:  80309-0449
	                              gmd:country:  USA
	                              gmd:electronicMailAddress:  nsidc@nsidc.org
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	         gmd:Abstract:  
	
	            This data set provides sea ice extent for the Arctic (60-90 degrees North) and 
	            Antarctic (52-90 degrees South) in Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) 
	            binary image format, along with ASCII text files containing latitude and 
	            longitude coordinates along the sea ice edge, and browse images of SIR files 
	            in Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) format. Ancillary products include 
	            daily-averaged total sea ice extent in ASCII format. Estimates of sea ice 
	            extent were produced from daily-averaged QuikSCAT sigma-0 measurements and 
	            extend from 19 July 1999 to 31 December 2009.

QuikSCAT obtains 12 individual 
	            radar normalized backscatter (sigma-0) measurements, called slices, for each 
	            footprint as it scans over a 1800 km wide swath. Slices are typically 4 to 6 
	            km long by 20 km wide. The summed measurements of the slices are called egg 
	            measurements. The effective resolution and shape of each egg measurement is 
	            approximately 20 by 30 km, depending on the antenna beam and instrument mode. 
	            This data set contains both slice and egg images for each day.

The Microwave 
	            Earth Remote Sensing (MERS) group at Brigham Young University (BYU) developed 
	            a SIR-with-filtering (SIRF) algorithm that combines forward- and aft-looking 
	            sigma-0 measurements to produce enhanced-resolution backscatter images over 
	            various azimuth angles. The polarization ratio, incidence angle dependence, 
	            and the sigma-0 estimate error standard deviation were used to discriminate 
	            between sea ice and ocean. Sea ice extent was estimated for both slice and egg 
	            images. The nominal pixel resolution of the slice images is 2.225 km with an 
	            estimated effective resolution of approximately 4 km. Egg images have a 
	            nominal pixel resolution of 4.45 km with an estimated effective resolution of 
	            approximately 8 to 10 km.

Data and browse images are available via FTP, along 
	            with C, Fortran, and Interactive Data Language (IDL) tools to read and display 
	            the SIR images.
	         gmd:Purpose:  Scientific Research
	         gmd:Credit:  Long, D. G. 2013. NASA SCP Arctic and Antarctic Ice Extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2009. Version 2. [indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. 
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	            gmd:individualName:  NSIDC User Services
	            gmd:organisationName:  National Snow and Ice Data Center
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	                     gmd:voice:  1 303 492-6199 x
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	                     gmd:deliveryPoint:  CIRES, 449 UCB
	                     gmd:city:  Boulder
	                     gmd:administrativeArea:  CO
	                     gmd:postalCode:  80309-0449
	                     gmd:country:  USA
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	      gmd:PointOfContact:  
	         gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty:  
	            gmd:individualName:  David G. Long
	            gmd:organisationName:  Brigham Young University
	            gmd:positionName:  none
	            gmd:contactInfo:  
	               gmd:CI_Contact:  
	                  gmd:address:  
	                     gmd:deliveryPoint:  459 Clyde Building
	                     gmd:city:  Provo
	                     gmd:administrativeArea:  UT
	                     gmd:postalCode:  84602
	                     gmd:country:  USA
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	                              gmd:voice:  1 303 492-6199 x
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	                              gmd:city:  Boulder
	                              gmd:administrativeArea:  CO
	                              gmd:postalCode:  80309-0449
	                              gmd:country:  USA
	                              gmd:electronicMailAddress:  nsidc@nsidc.org
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	                                 gmd:linkage:  http://nsidc.org
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	      gmd:Descriptive_Keywords:  
	         gmd:MD_Keywords:  
	            gmd:keyword:  Continent > Antarctica
	            gmd:keyword:  Geographic Region > Arctic
	            gmd:type:  
	               gmd:MD_KeywordTypeCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_KeywordTypeCode" codeListValue="place"
	               gmd:thesaurusName:  
	                  gmd:CI_Citation:  
	                     gmd:title:  NASA / GCMD Location Keywords
	                     gmd:date:  
	                        gmd:CI_Date:  
	                           gmd:date:  2008-02-05
	                           gmd:dateType:  
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	      gmd:Descriptive_Keywords:  
	         gmd:MD_Keywords:  
	            gmd:keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
	            gmd:keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
	            gmd:keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
	            gmd:keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
	            gmd:type:  
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	                           gmd:date:  2008-02-05
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	      gmd:Descriptive_Keywords:  
	         gmd:MD_Keywords:  
	            gmd:keyword:  SCP > NASA Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder
	            gmd:type:  
	               gmd:MD_KeywordTypeCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_KeywordTypeCode" codeListValue="theme"
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	                     gmd:title:  NASA / GCMD Project Keywords
	                     gmd:date:  
	                        gmd:CI_Date:  
	                           gmd:date:  2008-01-24
	                           gmd:dateType:  
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	      gmd:Descriptive_Keywords:  
	         gmd:MD_Keywords:  
	            gmd:keyword:  DAAC
	            gmd:keyword:  ice sheets
	            gmd:keyword:  Ku- band radar
	            gmd:keyword:  LANDFORMS
	            gmd:keyword:  NASA
	            gmd:keyword:  NSIDC DAAC
	            gmd:keyword:  NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
	            gmd:keyword:  QuikSCAT
	            gmd:keyword:  Satellite Radar Data
	            gmd:keyword:  Scatterometer
	            gmd:keyword:  SCP > Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder
	            gmd:keyword:  Sea Ice Extent
	            gmd:type:  
	               gmd:MD_KeywordTypeCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_KeywordTypeCode" codeListValue="theme"
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	               gmd:otherConstraints:  
	                  Access Constraints : none
	               gmd:otherConstraints:  
	                  Any use of images or data should include the following acknowledgement and citations: 'Ice extent images (or maps) are courtesy of David G. Long at Brigham Young  University, generated by the Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder project from data obtained from the PO.DAAC.'

Early, D.S., and and D.G. Long. 2001. Image reconstruction and enhanced  resolution imaging from irregular samples. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and  Remote Sensing 39(2): 291-302. Long, D.G. 2004. NASA SCP arctic and antarctic ice extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2004. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Remund, Q.P., and D.G. Long. 1999. Sea ice extent mapping using Ku-band scatterometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(C5): 11515-11527. Please send reprints of papers, reports, or presentations using these data to NSIDC User Services, the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and David Long.
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