Identification_Information:
   Dataset_Identifier: NSIDC-0265

   Citation: 
      Citation_Information: 
         Originator: Long, D. G. 
         Publication_Date: 20130403
         Title: NASA SCP Arctic and Antarctic Ice Extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2009
         Edition: 2
         Publication_Information: 
            Publication_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
            Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Online_Linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0265.html

   Description: 
      Abstract:
         This data set provides sea ice extent for the Arctic (60-90 degrees North) and 
         Antarctic (52-90 degrees South) in Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) 
         binary image format, along with ASCII text files containing latitude and 
         longitude coordinates along the sea ice edge, and browse images of SIR files 
         in Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) format. Ancillary products include 
         daily-averaged total sea ice extent in ASCII format. Estimates of sea ice 
         extent were produced from daily-averaged QuikSCAT sigma-0 measurements and 
         extend from 19 July 1999 to 31 December 2009.

         QuikSCAT obtains 12 individual radar normalized backscatter (sigma-0) 
         measurements, called slices, for each footprint as it scans over a 1800 km 
         wide swath. Slices are typically 4 to 6 km long by 20 km wide. The summed 
         measurements of the slices are called egg measurements. The effective 
         resolution and shape of each egg measurement is approximately 20 by 30 km, 
         depending on the antenna beam and instrument mode. This data set contains both 
         slice and egg images for each day.

         The Microwave Earth Remote Sensing (MERS) group at Brigham Young University 
         (BYU) developed a SIR-with-filtering (SIRF) algorithm that combines forward- 
         and aft-looking sigma-0 measurements to produce enhanced-resolution 
         backscatter images over various azimuth angles. The polarization ratio, 
         incidence angle dependence, and the sigma-0 estimate error standard deviation 
         were used to discriminate between sea ice and ocean. Sea ice extent was 
         estimated for both slice and egg images. The nominal pixel resolution of the 
         slice images is 2.225 km with an estimated effective resolution of 
         approximately 4 km. Egg images have a nominal pixel resolution of 4.45 km with 
         an estimated effective resolution of approximately 8 to 10 km.

         Data and browse images are available via FTP, along with C, Fortran, and 
         Interactive Data Language (IDL) tools to read and display the SIR images.

      Purpose: scientific research
      Documentation: 
         User's_Guide: 
            Citation_Information: 
               Originator: Long, D. G. 
               Publication_Date: 20130403
               Title: NASA SCP Arctic and Antarctic Ice Extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2009
               Publication_Information: 
                  Publication_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
                  Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
               Online_Linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0265_scatterometry_ice_extent.gd.html

   Time_Period_of_Content:
      Time_Period_Information:
         Range_of_Dates/Times:
            Beginning_Date: 19990719
            Ending_Date: 20091231
      Currentness_Reference: publication date

   Status:
      Progress: Complete
      Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Unknown

   Spatial_Domain:
      Bounding_Coordinates:
         West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180
         East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180
         North_Bounding_Coordinate: 90
         South_Bounding_Coordinate: -90

   Keywords:
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
         Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
         Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
         Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
         Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Sea Ice > Ice Extent
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
         Theme_Keyword: SCP > NASA Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
         Theme_Keyword: SCATTEROMETERS
         Theme_Keyword: SEAWINDS > SeaWinds
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
         Theme_Keyword: QUIKSCAT > Quick Recovery Scatterometer
         Theme_Keyword: SATELLITES
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
         Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
      Theme:
         Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
         Theme_Keyword: DAAC
         Theme_Keyword: ice sheets
         Theme_Keyword: Ku- band radar
         Theme_Keyword: LANDFORMS
         Theme_Keyword: NASA
         Theme_Keyword: NSIDC DAAC
         Theme_Keyword: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Theme_Keyword: QuikSCAT
         Theme_Keyword: Satellite Radar Data
         Theme_Keyword: Scatterometer
         Theme_Keyword: SCP > Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder
         Theme_Keyword: Sea Ice Extent
      Place:
         Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
         Place_Keyword: Continent > Antarctica
         Place_Keyword: Geographic Region > Arctic

   Access_Constraints: None

   Use_Constraints:

      Any use of images or data should include the following acknowledgement and 
      citations: 'Ice extent images (or maps) are courtesy of David G. Long at 
      Brigham Young  University, generated by the Scatterometer Climate Record 
      Pathfinder project from data obtained from the PO.DAAC.'

      Early, D.S., and and D.G. Long. 2001. Image reconstruction and enhanced  
      resolution imaging from irregular samples. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and 
       Remote Sensing 39(2): 291-302. Long, D.G. 2004. NASA SCP arctic and antarctic 
      ice extent from QuikSCAT, 1999-2004. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice 
      Data Center. Digital media. Remund, Q.P., and D.G. Long. 1999. Sea ice extent 
      mapping using Ku-band scatterometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research 
      104(C5): 11515-11527. Please send reprints of papers, reports, or 
      presentations using these data to NSIDC User Services, the Physical 
      Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and David Long.


   Point_of_Contact:
      Contact_Information:
         Contact_Person_Primary:
            Contact_Person: NSIDC User Services
            Contact_Organization: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Contact_Address:
            Address_Type: mailing
            Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
            Address: University of Colorado
            City: Boulder
            State_or_Province: CO
            Postal_Code: 80309-0449
            Country: USA
         Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1 303 492-6199 x
         Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 1 303  492-2468 x
         Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org

Distribution_Information:
   Distributor:
      Contact_Information:
         Contact_Organization_Primary:
            Contact_Organization: National Snow and Ice Data Center
            Contact_Person: NSIDC User Services
         Contact_Address:
            Address_Type: mailing
            Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
            Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
            Address: University of Colorado
            City: Boulder
            State_or_Province: CO
            Postal_Code: 80309-0449
            Country: USA
         Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1 303 492-6199 
         Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 1 303  492-2468 
         Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org

   Resource_Description: NSIDC-0265

   Distribution_Liability:
      NSIDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or 
      omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function 
      on a particular system. NSIDC makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor 
      does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

   Standard_Order_Process:
      Digital_Form:
         Digital_Transfer_Information:
            Format_Name: Binary
         Digital_Transfer_Option:
            Online_Option:
               Computer_Contact_Information:
                  Network_Address:
                     Network_Resource_Name: ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/nsidc0265_QuikSCAT_ice_extent/
      Fees: None

   Standard_Order_Process:
      Digital_Form:
         Digital_Transfer_Information:
            Format_Name: GIF
         Digital_Transfer_Option:
            Online_Option:
               Computer_Contact_Information:
                  Network_Address:
                     Network_Resource_Name: ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/nsidc0265_QuikSCAT_ice_extent/
      Fees: None

   Standard_Order_Process:
      Digital_Form:
         Digital_Transfer_Information:
            Format_Name: ASCII Text (.txt)
         Digital_Transfer_Option:
            Online_Option:
               Computer_Contact_Information:
                  Network_Address:
                     Network_Resource_Name: ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/nsidc0265_QuikSCAT_ice_extent/
      Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
   Metadata_Date: 20130624

   Metadata_Review_Date: 20130624

   Metadata_Contact: 
      Contact_Information:
         Contact_Person_Primary:
            Contact_Person: NSIDC User Services
            Contact_Organization: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Contact_Address:
            Address_Type: mailing
            Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
            Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
            Address: University of Colorado
            City: Boulder
            State_or_Province: CO
            Postal_Code: 80309-0449
            Country: USA
         Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1 303 492-6199 
         Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 1 303  492-2468 
         Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org

   Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata

   Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-012-2002