Entry_ID: NSIDC-0164
Entry_Title: CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Marshall, H., G. Koh, and R. Forster. 
   Dataset_Title: CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2004-11-22
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0164.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Hans-Peter
   Last_Name: Marshall
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering
      Address: Campus Box 450
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0422
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Reflectivity
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: continuous wave radar
Keyword: Radar
Keyword: Snow Depth
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 2002-02-19
   Stop_Date: 2002-03-26
End_Group
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 2003-02-19
   Stop_Date: 2003-03-29
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 39.828
   Northernmost_Latitude: 40.6449
   Westernmost_Longitude: -106.6788
   Easternmost_Longitude: -105.7681
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
   Detailed_Location: COLORADO, WYOMING
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
End_Group
Project: CLPX > Cold Land Processes Field Experiment
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
   Distribution_Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Koh, G. and R. Jordan. 1995. Subsurface melting in a seasonal snow cover. 
   J.GLAC, 41(139):474-482.

   Koh, G., N.D. Mulherin, J.P. Hardy, R.E. Davis, and A. Twombly. 2002. 
   Microwave Interaction with Snowpack Observed at the Cold Land Processes Field 
   Experiment. 59th Eastern Snow Conference, Stowe, Vermont, USA 2002.

   Koh, G. N.E. Yankielun and A.I. Baptista. 1996. Snow cover characterization 
   using multiband FMCW radars. Hydr. Proc., 10(12):1609-1617.  Marshall, H.P., 
   G. Koh, and R. Forster. Ground-Based FMCW radar measurements: a summary of the 
   NASA CLPX data. EOS Trans, AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C42B-07.

   Marshall , H.P., G. Koh, and R. Forster, in press. Estimating Alpine Snowpack 
   Properties Using FMCW Radar. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 40.  Marshall , H.P., 
   G. Koh, and R. Forster, in press. Ground-based FMCW radar measurements in wet 
   and dry snowpacks, Colorado , U.S.A. – An analysis and summary of the 2002-03 
   NASA CLPX data. Hydrologic Processes.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set is comprised of FMCW radar measurements, which are sensitive to 
   electromagnetic discontinuities in the snowpack, made during the 2002 and 2003 
   Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX). The microwave interaction with a 
   snow pack was measured using broadband frequency modulated continuous wave 
   (FMCW) radar operating at between 2 and 18 GHz, incorporating the following 
   frequencies: C-Band (2-6 GHz), X-Band (8-12 GHz), and Ku-Band (14-18 GHz). 
   Measurements were made at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) near Fraser, 
   Colorado, during Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) 1 and 2 (February and 
   March, 2002), and at four different sites covering each of the three Mesocell 
   Study Areas (MSAs) during IOP 3 and 4 (February and March, 2003). Active 
   microwave radar signals are reflected and scattered by electromagnetic 
   discontinuities that affect radar backscatter signatures. The location and 
   magnitude of these discontinuities in a snow pack must be identified as a 
   function of microwave frequency in order to accurately invert snow cover 
   properties from active and passive microwave remote sensing systems. 
   Consequently, in conjunction with the radar measurements, detailed snow pit 
   measurements were taken at a nearby site in order to correlate the radar 
   profile with the snow pit records.

   This investigation found that radar operating at 14-18 GHz contains the most 
   information about the internal features of a dry snow pack. However, the 
   high-frequency radar is of limited use in wet snow due to the high absorption 
   loss in water. For a wet snowpack, radar operating at lower frequencies (2-6 
   GHz) was necessary for penetrating to the snow-ground interface. These 
   findings suggest that a dual-frequency approach for radar remote sensing may 
   be necessary to retrieve snow pack parameters such as density, depth, and 
   wetness.

   The NASA CLPX is a multi-sensor, multi-scale experiment that focuses on 
   extending a local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and 
   transformations to regional and global scales. Within a framework of nested 
   study areas in the central Rocky Mountains of the western United States, 
   ranging from 1-ha to 160,000 km2, intensive ground, airborne, and spaceborne 
   observations are collected. Data collection focuses on two seasons: 
   mid-winter, when conditions are generally frozen and dry, and early spring, a 
   transitional period when both frozen and thawed, dry and wet conditions are 
   widespread.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/clpx/
   Description: CLPX Web Site
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/clpx
   Description: Project web site
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2004-11-22
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-03-11
Group: DIF_Revision_History

   Removed USO from the Data Contributors listing. Most have been an error from 
   moving this data record from the MDDB to the EDB.

End_Group