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CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar

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Entry ID

NSIDC-0164

Summary

This data set is comprised of FMCW radar measurements, which are sensitive to electromagnetic discontinuities in the snowpack, made during the 2002 and 2003 Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX). The microwave interaction with a snow pack was measured using broadband frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at between 2 and 18 GHz, incorporating the following frequencies: C-Band (2-6 GHz), X-Band (8-12 GHz), and Ku-Band (14-18 GHz). Measurements were made at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) near Fraser, Colorado, during Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) 1 and 2 (February and March, 2002), and at four different sites covering each of the three Mesocell Study Areas (MSAs) during IOP 3 and 4 (February and March, 2003). Active microwave radar signals are reflected and scattered by electromagnetic discontinuities that affect radar backscatter signatures. The location and magnitude of these discontinuities in a snow pack must be identified as a function of microwave frequency in order to accurately invert snow cover properties from active and passive microwave remote sensing systems. Consequently, in conjunction with the radar measurements, detailed snow pit measurements were taken at a nearby site in order to correlate the radar profile with the snow pit records.

This investigation found that radar operating at 14-18 GHz contains the most information about the internal features of a dry snow pack. However, the high-frequency radar is of limited use in wet snow due to the high absorption loss in water. For a wet snowpack, radar operating at lower frequencies (2-6 GHz) was necessary for penetrating to the snow-ground interface. These findings suggest that a dual-frequency approach for radar remote sensing may be necessary to retrieve snow pack parameters such as density, depth, and wetness.

The NASA CLPX is a multi-sensor, multi-scale experiment that focuses on extending a local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. Within a framework of nested study areas in the central Rocky Mountains of the western United States, ranging from 1-ha to 160,000 km2, intensive ground, airborne, and spaceborne observations are collected. Data collection focuses on two seasons: mid-winter, when conditions are generally frozen and dry, and early spring, a transitional period when both frozen and thawed, dry and wet conditions are widespread.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 40.6449°     S: 39.828°     E: -105.7681°     W: -106.6788°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Marshall, H., G. Koh, and R. Forster.
Dataset Title: CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
Dataset Release Date: 2004-11-22
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0164.html

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 2002-02-19
Stop Date: 2002-03-26

Start Date: 2003-02-19
Stop Date: 2003-03-29

Location Keywords

  • CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA
  • CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA COLORADO, WYOMING
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover
  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Snow Depth
  • Spectral/Engineering Radar Radar Reflectivity
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Snow Depth

Ancillary Keywords

  • continuous wave radar
  • Radar
  • Snow Depth

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere

Project

  • CLPX Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Data Set Progress

complete

Data Center

NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
Distribution Format: Binary

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 0.02 - 11.2 MB
Distribution Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)

Personnel

Hans-Peter Marshall
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • University of Colorado
  • Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering
  • Campus Box 450

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0422
Country: USA

Related URL

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
CLPX Web Site

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Project web site

Reference

Koh, G. and R. Jordan. 1995. Subsurface melting in a seasonal snow cover. J.GLAC, 41(139):474-482.

Koh, G., N.D. Mulherin, J.P. Hardy, R.E. Davis, and A. Twombly. 2002. Microwave Interaction with Snowpack Observed at the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment. 59th Eastern Snow Conference, Stowe, Vermont, USA 2002.

Koh, G. N.E. Yankielun and A.I. Baptista. 1996. Snow cover characterization using multiband FMCW radars. Hydr. Proc., 10(12):1609-1617. Marshall, H.P., G. Koh, and R. Forster. Ground-Based FMCW radar measurements: a summary of the NASA CLPX data. EOS Trans, AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C42B-07.

Marshall , H.P., G. Koh, and R. Forster, in press. Estimating Alpine Snowpack Properties Using FMCW Radar. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 40. Marshall , H.P., G. Koh, and R. Forster, in press. Ground-based FMCW radar measurements in wet and dry snowpacks, Colorado , U.S.A. – An analysis and summary of the 2002-03 NASA CLPX data. Hydrologic Processes.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2004-11-22
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-03-11

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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