Entry_ID: NSIDC-0105
Entry_Title: Snow Melt Onset Over Arctic Sea Ice from SMMR and SSM/I-SSMIS Brightness Temperatures
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Anderson, M., A. C. Bliss, and S. Drobot. 
   Dataset_Title: Snow Melt Onset Over Arctic Sea Ice from SMMR and SSM/I-SSMIS Brightness Temperatures
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2014-04-10
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 3
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0105.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mark
   Last_Name: Anderson
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Meteorology/Climatology Program
      Address: Dept. of Geosciences
      Address: University of Nebraska
      City: Lincoln
      Province_or_State: NE
      Postal_Code: 68588-0340
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Angela
   Middle_Name: C
   Last_Name: Bliss
   Email: acbliss3@huskers.unl.edu
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Nebraska - Lincoln
      Address: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Sheldon
   Last_Name: Drobot
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research
      Address: Department of Aerospace Engineering
      Address: 431 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0431
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Melt
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Melt
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Arctic
Keyword: Climate Proxy
Keyword: DAAC
Keyword: DMSP
Keyword: EOSDIS
Keyword: FTP
Keyword: Gridded Data
Keyword: NASA
Keyword: NIMBUS-7
Keyword: NSIDC
Keyword: Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures
Keyword: Polar
Keyword: Polar Stereographic
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Sea Ice
Keyword: SMMR
Keyword: Snow Melt Onset Dates
Keyword: SSM/I
Keyword: Tbs
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: SSMIS > Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
Source_Name: DMSP > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F11 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F13 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F8 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-3/F17 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1979-01-01
   Stop_Date: 2012-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 30
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 year
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 16 - 27 KB
   Distribution_Format: GIF
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 133 - 680 KB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Abdalati, W. and K. Steffen. 1997. Snowmelt on the Greenland Ice Sheet as 
   Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Data. Journal of Climate 10(2):165-175.

   Abdalati, W. and K. Steffen. 1995. Passive Microwave-defined Snow Melt Regions 
   on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophysical Research Letters 22(7):787-790.

   Abdalati, W., K. Steffen, C. Otto and K. Jezek. 1995. Comparison of brightness 
   temperatures from SSM/I Instruments on the DMSP F8 and F11 Satellites for 
   Antarctica and the Greenland Ice Sheet. International Journal of Remote 
   Sensing 16:1223-1229.

   Anderson, M. 1997. Determination of a Melt Onset Date for Arctic Sea Ice 
   Regions Using Passive Microwave Data. Annals of Glaciology 25:382-387.

   Anderson, M. 1987. The Onset of Spring Melt in First-year Ice Regions of the 
   Arctic as Determined from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer Data for 
   1979 and 1980. Journal of Geophysical Research 92(C12):13,153-13,163.

   Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, J. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. 
   Deriving Long-term Time Series of Sea Ice Cover from Satellite 
   Passive-microwave Multisensor Data Sets. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   104(C7):15,803-15,814.

   Cavalieri, D. 1994. A Microwave Technique for Mapping Thin Sea Ice. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 99(C6):12,561-12,572.

   Drobot, S. D. and M. R. Anderson. 2001a. An improved method for determining 
   snowmelt onset dates over Arctic sea ice using scanning multichannel microwave 
   radiometer and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data. Journal of Geophysical 
   Research 106: 24,033-24,049. 

   Drobot, S. and M. Anderson. 2001b. Comparison of Interannual Snowmelt Onset 
   Dates with Atmospheric Conditions. Annals of Glaciology 33: 79-84. 

   Dubach L. and C. Ng. 1988. NSSDC's Compendium of Meteorological Space 
   Programs, Satellites, and Experiments.

   Gloersen, P. 1994. Nimbus-7 SMMR Polar Radiances and Arctic and Antarctic Sea 
   Ice Concentrations. [1979-1987]. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice 
   Data Center.

   Gloersen, P. and F. Barath. 1977. A Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer 
   for Nimbus-G and SeaSat-A. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 2:172-178.

   Gloersen, P., W. Campbell, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, C. Parkinson, and H. J. 
   Zwally. 1992. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite 
   Passive-microwave Observations and Analysis. National Aeronautics and Space 
   Administration Scientific and Technical Information Program. Washington, D.C.

   Gloersen, P. and L. Hardis. 1978. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave 
   Radiometer (SMMR) Experiment, in The Nimbus 7 Users' Guide. C. R. Madrid, 
   editor. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Greenbelt, MD: Goddard 
   Space Flight Center.

   Jezek, K., C. Merry, D. Cavalieri, S., Grace, J. Bedner, D. Wilson, and D. 
   Lampkin. 1991. Comparison Between SMMR and SSM/I Passive Microwave Data 
   Collected over the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Byrd Polar Research Center Technical 
   Report No. 91-03, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 62 pp.

   Kramer, H. 1994. Observation of the Earth and Its Environment - Survey of 
   Missions and Sensors, 2nd Edition. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

   Kunzi, K., S. Patil, and H. Rott. 1982. Snow-cover Parameters Derived from 
   Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data. IEEE 
   Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing GE-20:57-66.

   Livingstone, C., K. Singh, and L. Gray. 1987. Seasonal and Regional Variations 
   of Active/Passive Microwave Signatures of Sea Ice. IEEE Transactions on 
   Geosciences and Remote Sensing GE-25:159-172.

   Maslanik, J. and J. Stroeve. 2004, updated 2012. DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar 
   Gridded Brightness Temperatures. Version 4. [1988-2011]. Boulder, Colorado 
   USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

   Meier, W., F. Fetterer, M. Savoie, S. Mallory, R. Duerr, and J. Stroeve. 2013. 
   NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration. 
   Version 2. [2008-2011]. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data 
   Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N55M63M1.

   National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1978. The Nimbus 7 Users' 
   Guide. C.R. Madrid, editor. Goddard Space Flight Center.

   Snyder, J. P. 1982. Map Projections Used by the U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. 
   Geological Survey Bulletin 1532.

   Stroeve, J., L. Xiaoming, and J. Maslanik. 1998. An Intercomparison of DMSP 
   F11- and F13-derived Sea Ice Products. Remote Sensing of the Environment 
   64:132-152.

   Swanson, P. and A. Riley. 1980. The Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave 
   Radiometer (SMMR): Radiometric Calibration Algorithm Development and 
   Performance. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering OE-5:116-124.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set includes yearly snow melt onset dates over Arctic sea ice 
   derived from brightness temperatures from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave 
   Radiometer (SMMR), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and the 
   Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). The introduction of liquid 
   water to snow results in a sharp increase in the emissivity and hence 
   brightness temperature of the snowpack. Snow melt onset is defined as the 
   point in time when microwave brightness temperatures increase sharply due to 
   the presence of liquid water in the snowpack. 

   Data span the years 1979 through 2012 and are in a polar stereographic grid at 
   25 km resolution. Flat binary, 1-byte integer files and GIF images are 
   accessible via FTP. Several value-added products are also available. 

   Value-added data sets include the following for each pixel: mean melt onset 
   date; latest (maximum) melt onset date; earliest (minimum) melt onset date; 
   range of melt onset dates (the difference between maximum and minimum -- an 
   index of variability); and standard deviation of melt onset date (another 
   index of variability). Graphical representations of value-added data are also 
   available.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/
   Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2014-04-10
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-04-10
DIF_Revision_History:  Minor update (removed the "updated 2014" text that was not needed).