Adjusted Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall and Rainfall for Canada (1874-1990)

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Entry ID



This data set was distributed by NSIDC until October, 2003, when it was withdrawn from distribution because it duplicates the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) data set TD-9816 'Canadian Monthly Precipitation' (Groisman, P.Y. 1998. National Climatic Data Center Data Documentation for TD-9816, Canadian Monthly Precipitation. National Climatic Data Center 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC. 21 pp.). TD-9816 contains monthly rainfall, snowfall and precipitation (the sum of rainfall and snowfall) values from 6,692 stations in Canada. NCDC investigator Pavel Groisman obtained the original data from the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) in the early 1990s and adjusted the measurements to account for inconsistencies and changes in instrumentation over the period of record. TD-9816 contains both the original and adjusted data. Related data are the Historical Adjusted Climate Database for Canada, Version December 2002, and Rehabilitated Precipitation and Homogenized Temperature Data Sets provided by the Climate Monitoring and Data Interpretation Division's Climate Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada. Monthly Rehabilitated Precipitation and Homogenized Temperature Data Sets (updated annually) includes an alternative version of this data set using different correction methods. It is distributed by the Meteorological Service of Canada, who also provides a Microsoft Word document that compares the two different data correction methods.

Geographic Coverage


Spatial Coordinates:
N: 84°     S: 41°     E: -52°     W: -141°     Min Altitude: 0 meters     Max Altitude: 2517 meters    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: P. Groisman
Dataset Title: Adjusted Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall and Rainfall for Canada (1874-1990)
Dataset Release Date: 2000-01-01
Dataset Release Place: Asheville, North Carolina USA
Dataset Publisher: NCDC: National Climatic Data Center
Online Resource:

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1874-01-01
Stop Date: 1990-12-31

Location Keywords


Science Keywords

  • Atmosphere Precipitation Precipitation Amount
  • Atmosphere Precipitation Precipitation Rate
  • Atmosphere Precipitation Rain
  • Atmosphere Precipitation Snow
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover

Ancillary Keywords

  • Adjusted Data
  • Canada
  • Canadian Arctic
  • Corrected Data
  • Evaporation Loss
  • Ground Stations
  • Instrumental Inhomogeneities
  • Mean Monthly Precipitation
  • Mean Monthly Rainfall
  • Nipher Rain Gauge
  • Nipher Snow Gauge
  • NOAA
  • Rainfall Adjustment
  • Snowfall Adjustment
  • Snow Ruler
  • Station Data
  • Trace Precipitation
  • Wetting Loss
  • Wind-induced Undercatch






  • EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data Information System
  • ESIP Earth Science Information Partners Program

Data Set Progress


Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL:

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL:

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 45 MB
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)


Pavel YA. Groisman
Phone: 1 704 271-4307
Contact Address:

  • National Climatic Data Center
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

City: Asheville
Province or State: NC
Postal Code: 28801

Mark C. Serreze
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449

Related URL

Comparison of Data Correction Methods

Meteorological Service of Canada: Monthly Rehabilitated Precipitation and Homogenized Temperature Data Sets

Former Soviet Union Monthly Precipitation Archive, 1891-1993


Goodison, B.E. 1978. Accuracy of Canadian snow gauge measurements. Journal of Applied Meteorology 17:1542-1548.

Groisman, P.Ya. D.R. Easterling. 1994. Variability and trends of precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada. Journal of Climate 7:184-205.

Karl, T.R., Quayle, R.G., Groisman, P.Ya. 1993. Detecting climate variations and change: New challenges for observing and data management systems. Journal of Climate 6:1481-1494.

Metcalfe, J.R., B. Routledge, K. Devine. 1997. Rainfall measurement in Canada: Changing observational methods and archive adjustment procedures. Journal of Climate 10:92-101.

Akima, H., 1978. A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting for irregularly distributed data points. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 4:148-159.

Bradley, R.S., J. England Jr. 1978. Recent climatic fluctuations of the Canadian high Arctic and their significance for glaciology. Arctic Alpine Research 10:715-731.

Bruce, J.P., R.H. Clark. 1966. Introduction to Hydrometeorology, 319 pp., Permagon Press, Oxford.

Currie, B.W., 1947. Water content of snow in cold climates. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 28:150-151.

Ferguson, H.L., D.M. Pollock. 1971. Estimating snowpack accumulation for runoff prediction. Canadian Hydrology Symposium No.8: Runoff from Snow and Ice. Inland Water Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Quebec City. 7-27.

Golubev, V.S., 1993. Experience of correction of precipitation point measurements and analysis of correction procedures. AMS Proceedings: Eighth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation Anaheim, CA. 325-328.

Golubev, V.S., V.V. Koknaeva, A.Yu. Simonenko. 1995. Results of atmospheric precipitation measurements by national standard gauges of Canada, USA, and Russia. Meteorologia i Gidrologia 2:102-110. (in Russian)

Goodison, B.E., H.L. Ferguson, G.A. McKay. 1981. Comparison of point snowfall measurement techniques. In: D.M.Gray and D.M. Male (Eds). 'Handbook on Snow: Principles, processes, management and use. Pergamon Press, p. 200-210.

Goodison, B.E., P.Y.T. Louie. 1986. Canadian methods for precipitation measurement and correction. WMO/TD-No. 104. Instruments and observing methods. Report No. 25. Papers presented at the Workshop on the Correct ion of Precipitation Measurements, Zurich, Switzerland, 1-3 April, 1985, 141-145.

Goodison, B.E., J.R. Metcalfe. 1989. Canadian participation in the WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison: preliminary results. WMO/IAHS/ETH International Workshop on precipitation Measurement, St.-Mor itz, Switzerland, 3-7 December, 1989, 121-125.

Goodison, B.E., P.Y.T. Louie and D. Yang. 1998. WMO solid precipitation measurement intercomparison, final report, 212 pp. World Meteorlogical Organization, Geneva.

Groisman, P.Y., V.V. Koknaeva, T.A. Belokrylova, and T.R. Karl. 1991. Overcoming biases of precipitation measurement: A history of the USSR experience, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 72 (11): 1725-1733.

Groisman, P.Ya., R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, R.R. Heim Jr. 1993. Inferences of the North American snowfall and snow cover with recent global temperature changes. Proceedings of 'Snow Watch '92' Conference, Niagara-on the-Lake, Canada, March 30 - April 1, 1992, 44-51.

Groisman, P.Ya., T.R. Karl. R.W. Knight, G.L. Stenchikov. 1994. Changes of snow cover, temperature, and radiative heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Climate 7:1633-1656.

Groisman, P.Ya., D.R. Easterling. 1996. Variability and trends of precipitation and snowfall over North America. In 'Natural and Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales', National Academy Press, 67-77.

Groisman, P.Ya., T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, R.W. Knight, P.B. Jamason, K J. Hennessy, R. Suppiah, Ch.M. Page, J. Wibig, K. Fortuniak, V.N. Razuvaev, A. Douglas, E. Forland, P.-M. Zhai. 1999. Changes in the prob ability of heavy precipitation: Important indicators of climatic change. Climatic Change (in press).

Groisman, P.Y. 1998. National Climatic Data Center Data Documentation for TD-9816, Canadian Monthly Precipitation, pp. 21, National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC.

Hare, F.K., 1980. Long-term annual surface heat and water balances over Canada and the United States south of 60oN: Reconciliation of precipitation, run-off and temperature fields. Atmosphere-Ocean No.18(2): 127-153.

Karl, T.R., P.Ya. Groisman, R.W. Knight, R.R. Heim Jr. 1993b. Recent variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and their relation to precipitation and temperature variations. Journal of Climate 6:1327-1344.

Kurtyka, J.C., 1953. Precipitation Measurement Study. State of Illinois, Department of Registration and Education, State Water Survey Division , Urbana, Il. Report of Investigation # 20, 178 pp.

Mekis, E., W.D. Hogg. 1997. Rehabilitation and analysis of Canadian daily precipitation time series. AMS Proceedings of the 10th conference on applied climatology in Reno, Nevada, October 20-23. 300-304.

American Meterology Society, Boston, Mass. Neff, E.L., 1977. How much rain does a rain gauge gauge? Journal of Hydrology 35, 213-220.

Potter, J.G., 1965. Water content of freshly fallen snow. Department of Transport, Meteorological Branch. Cirular 4232, Technical 569, 12 pp.

Sanderson, M., 1975. A comparison of Canadian and United States standard methods of measuring precipitation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 14: 1197-1199.

Sevruk B., 1982. Methods of correction for systematic error in point precipitation measurement for operational use. WMO, Operational Hydrology Report Geneva. 21:91p.

Woo, M.-K., P. Steer. 1979. Measurement of trace rainfall at a high arctic site. Arctic 32:80-84.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1973. Annotated bibliography on precipitation measurement instruments. WMO Geneva, Switzerland 2E 343:278 pp.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1979. Climatic Atlas of North and Central America, Vol. 1. WMO UNESCO Geneva, Switzerland, 39 pp.

World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth, 1974. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 638 pp. (in Russian; in English published by UNESCO Press in 1978).

Yang, D., B.E. Goodison, J.R. Metcalfe, V.S. Golubev, E. Elomaa, T. Gunther, R.E. Bates, T.Pangburn, C.L. Hanson, D. Emerson, V. Copaciu, and J. Mikovic. 1995. Accuracy of Tretyakov Precipitation Gauge: Result of WMO Intercomparison, 52nd Eastern Snow Conference pp. 95-106, Toronto, Canada.

Yang, D. 1999. An improved precipitation climatology for the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 26 (11): 1625-1628.

Yang, D., S. Ishida, B.E. Goodison, and T. Gunther. 1999. Bias correction of daily precipitation measurements for Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (D6): 6171-6181.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2000-01-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-09-18

Metadata Views

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U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)


International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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