Entry_ID: NSIDC-0052
Entry_Title: Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Fahnestock, Mark, Simon Ekholm, Kenneth Knowles, Ron Kwok, Ted Scambos
   Dataset_Title: Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1997-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0052.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mark
   Last_Name: Fahnestock
   Email: mark.fahnestock@unh.edu
   Phone: 1 603 862-0322 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address:  University of New Hampshire
      Address: Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space
      Address: University of New Hampshire
      Address: 39 College Road
      City: Durham
      Province_or_State: NH
      Postal_Code: 03824-3525
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Simon
   Last_Name: Ekholm
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Kort-og Matrikelstyrelsen
      Address: (KMS, National Survey and Cadastre)
      City: Copenhagen
      Country: Denmark
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Kenneth
   Last_Name: Knowles
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ron
   Last_Name: Kwok
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
      Address: California Institute of Technology
      City: Pasadena
      Province_or_State: CA
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ted
   Last_Name: Scambos
   Email: scambos@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES,  449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mike
   Last_Name: Meshek
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Elevation/Ice Sheet Elevation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Elevation/Ice Sheet Elevation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Topography/Ice Sheet Topography
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Topography/Ice Sheet Topography
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Edges
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Edges
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Edges
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Edges
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Backscatter
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Backscatter
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Cross-section
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Cross-section
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Imagery
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Imagery
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Reflectivity
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Radar Reflectivity
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Return Power
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Radar
   Variable_Level_1: Return Power
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Elevation/Ice Sheet Elevation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Elevation/Ice Sheet Elevation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Topography/Ice Sheet Topography
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Topography/Ice Sheet Topography
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Elevation
ISO_Topic_Category: Geoscientific Information
ISO_Topic_Category: Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover
ISO_Topic_Category: Inland Waters
Sensor_Name: RADAR ALTIMETERS
Sensor_Name: SAR > Synthetic Aperture Radar
Sensor_Name: VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
Source_Name: ERS-1 > European Remote Sensing Satellite-1
Source_Name: GEOSAT > Geodetic Satellite
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1992-08-02
   Stop_Date: 1992-09-09
End_Group
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1991-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1995-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 60
   Northernmost_Latitude: 84
   Westernmost_Longitude: -73
   Easternmost_Longitude: -10
   Minimum_Altitude: 0 meters
   Maximum_Altitude: 3251.4 meters
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: GREENLAND
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 100 m
   Longitude_Resolution: 100 m
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 2 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 2 km
   Vertical_Resolution: 13 m
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Group: Quality

   The accuracy and precision of the DEM is not adequate for the detection of 
   real ice surface elevation changes over time, and thus the DEM should not be 
   used for such purposes. Additional processing would be necessary before the 
   DEM could be used as part of a scheme for elevation change detection.

End_Group
Group: Access_Constraints

   This data set is available for non-profit, research-oriented purposes only. 
   Prospective users of the product are required to complete a Research Agreement 
   stating that the image and elevation data will be only be used under the 
   specified terms and conditions.

End_Group
Use_Constraints: For non-profit, research-oriented purposes only.
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NSIDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: CD-ROM
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Multimedia_Sample
   File: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0075_geosat/images/greenland.gif
   Caption: A low-resolution sample view of the DEM and Radar image coverage.
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Andersen, Ole Baltazar. 1994. ERS-1 altimetry on the Greenland ice sheet: 
   Preliminary investigations of annual variations. Geophysical Research Letters 
   21(15):1655-1658.

   Binschadler, R. A., and P. L. Vornberger. 1993. Interpretation of SAR imagery 
   of the Greenland ice sheet using coregistered TM imagery. Remote Sensing of 
   Environment 167-175.

   Ekholm, S. 1996. A full coverage, high-resolution topographic model of 
   Greenland computed from a variety of digital elevation data. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 101(B10):21961-21972. 

   Ekholm, S., R. Forsberg, and J. M. Brozena. 1995. Accuracy of satellite 
   altimeter elevations over the Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Geophysical 
   Research 100(C2):2687-2696.

   Fahnestock, M. A., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1993. Description of a program for 
   SAR investigation of the Greenland ice sheet and an example of margin change 
   detection using SAR. Annals of Glaciology 39(131): 119-132.

   Fahnestock, M., R. Bindschadler, R. Kwok, and K. Jezek. 1993. Greenland ice 
   sheet surface properties and ice dynamics from ERS-1 SAR imagery. Science 
   262:1530-1534.

   Fahnestock, M., R. Bindschadler, R. Kwok, and K. Jezek. 1993. Greenland ice 
   sheet surface properties and ice dynamics from ERS-1 SAR imagery.Science 262: 
   1525-1530.

   Jezek, K. C., and S. Grace. 1991. Synthetic Aperture Radar observations of the 
   Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 150.   

    Jezek, K. C. 1992. Spatial patterns in radar backscatter strength across the 
   Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 181.

   Jezek, K. C., and S. P. Gogineni. 1992. Microwave remote sensing of the 
   Greenland ice sheet. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Newsletter 9:6-10.

   Jezek, K. C., M. R. Drinkwater, J. P. Crawford, R. Bindschadler, and R. Kwok. 
   1993. Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar data collected over the 
   southwestern Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Glaciology 39(131): 115-132.

   Jezek, K. C., P. Gogineni, and M. Chanableh. 1994. Radar measurements of melt 
   zones on the Greenland ice sheet. Geophysical Research Letters 21(1): 33-36.

   Knowles, K. 1992. Points, Pixels, Grids, and Cells: A Mapping and Gridding 
   Primer. Unpublished report to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, 
   CO.

   Rignot, E. J., S. J. Austria, J. J. V. Zyl, and K. C. Jezek. 1993. Unusual 
   radar echoes from the Greenland ice sheet. Science 261:1710-1713.

   Rignot, E., J. V. Zyl, S. Ostro, and K. C. Jezek. 1993. Unusual radar echoes 
   from the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 247.

   Rignot, E. 1995. Backscatter model for the unusual radar properties of the 
   Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(E5): 9389-9400.

   Simonett, D. S., F. T. Ulaby, J. E. Estes, and G. A. Thorley, eds. 1983. 
   Manual of remote sensing, Falls Church, Virginia: American Society of 
   Photogrammetry.

   Vornberger, P. L., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1992. Multi-spectral analysis of 
   ice sheets using co-registered SAR and TM imagery. International Journal of 
   Remote Sensing 13(4): 637-645.

   Zwally, R. A. Bindschadler, A. C. Brenner, and R. H. Thomas. 1983. Surface 
   elevation contours of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 88: 1589-1596.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet CD-ROM 
   combines the most detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image mosaic 
   available with the best current digital elevation model. The mosaic image 
   shows both the location of the ice edge and the distribution of melt-related 
   'scatterers' on the surface. These scatterers include ice lenses and complex 
   layered structure in the percolation zone and bare ice of the ablation zone.  
   Other melt-related features that can be seen include lake and surface 
   meltwater stream channels at lower elevations, as well as ice-marginal lakes.

   This characterization of the ice sheet provides a reference against which 
   future change can be measured. Changing conditions resulting from climatic 
   variation should show up as changes in the ice margin and shifts in the 
   hydrologic zones. It is hoped that the standard reference provided by this 
   data set can facilitate activities aimed at change detection and promote other 
   work aimed at understanding the processes operating on the ice sheet.

   The image data are derived from SAR image swaths acquired by the ERS-1 
   satellite during August of 1992. The mosaic was assembled at the Jet 
   Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Its 
   component images are a copyrighted product of the European Space Agency. The 
   mosaic, a value-added derived product, is available to individuals and 
   non-profit organizations for research oriented purposes only. The Danish 
   geodetic and cadastral agency Kort-og Matrikelstyrelsen (KMS) compiled the 
   elevation data provided with the product from a number of sources, including 
   field surveys, aerial photographs, and the ERS-1 radar altimeter. The 
   elevation data are also provided only to individuals and non-profit 
   organizations for research oriented purposes. Included with the data is 
   NSIDC's limb (large image map browser) software, which was developed in-house 
   and allows UNIX users to easily select and view portions of the mosaic image 
   with elevation contours derived from the elevation data overlain. Limb is 
   provided as 'freeware' for general use. NSIDC distributes the Digital SAR 
   Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet on CD-ROM at no charge.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0052_greenland_sar_dem.gd.html
   Description: Online documentation.
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0052_greenland_sar_dem/research_agreement.html
   Group: Description

      Research agreement that prospective users of the product are required to 
      complete stating that the image and elevation data will be only be used under 
      the specified terms and conditions.

   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/dems/index.html
   Description: Polar Ice Sheet DEMs and Elevation Data
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1997-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-07-30
DIF_Revision_History: corrected dist. format