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Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data

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Entry ID

NSIDC-0051

Summary

This data set is generated from brightness temperature data derived from the following sensors: the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) -F8, -F11 and -F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSM/Is), and the DMSP-F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). The data are provided in the polar stereographic projection at a grid cell size of 25 x 25 km.

This product is designed to provide a consistent time series of sea ice concentrations (the fraction, or percentage, of ocean area covered by sea ice) spanning the coverage of several passive microwave instruments. To aid in this goal, sea ice algorithm coefficients are changed to reduce differences in sea ice extent and area as estimated using the SMMR and SSM/I sensors. The data are generated using the NASA Team algorithm developed by the Oceans and Ice Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

These data include gridded daily (every other day for SMMR data) and monthly averaged sea ice concentrations for both the north and south polar regions. The data are produced at GSFC about once per year, with roughly a one-year latency, and include data since 26 October 1978. Data are produced from SMMR brightness temperature data processed at NASA GSFC and from SSM/I and SSMIS brightness temperature data processed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

Data are scaled and stored as one-byte integers in flat binary arrays. For each data file, a corresponding PNG browse image file is provided. Data are available via FTP.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: -39.23°     S: -90°     E: 180°     W: -180°    
N: 90°     S: 30.98°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. Zwally.
Dataset Title: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data
Dataset Release Date: 1996-01-01updated yearly
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0051.html

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1978-10-01
Stop Date: 2013-12-31

Data Resolution

Latitude Resolution: 25 km
Longitude Resolution: 25 km
Temporal Resolution: 1 mon

Latitude Resolution: 25 km
Longitude Resolution: 25 km
Temporal Resolution: 1 day

Location Keywords

  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION POLAR

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration

Ancillary Keywords

  • Antarctic
  • Arctic
  • Brightness Temperature
  • DMSP
  • EOSDIS
  • Gridded Data
  • Ice
  • Multiyear Sea Ice Concentration
  • NIMBUS-7
  • NSIDC DAAC
  • Passive Microwave
  • Polar
  • Polar Stereographic
  • Polynyas
  • Remote Sensing
  • Sea Ice
  • Sea Ice Concentration
  • SMMR
  • SSM/I
  • SSMIS

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
  • Oceans

Platform

  • DMSP 5D-2/F11 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
  • DMSP 5D-2/F13 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
  • DMSP 5D-2/F8 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
  • DMSP 5D-3/F17 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
  • NIMBUS-7

Instrument

  • SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
  • SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
  • SSMIS Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder

Project

  • EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data Information System
  • ESIP Earth Science Information Partners Program

Quality

NSIDC staff visually checks the entire set of data files and selected graphics files. This includes checks for proper file structure, comparisons to existing SMMR-, SSM/I-, and SSMIS-derived sea ice concentration grids, masks, and information files, and examination of data quality.

Some weather-related effects and land contamination are still present. The amount and spatial distribution of those remaining weather effects varies with season. Also, occasional bad scan lines still appear in the data. Based on NSIDC analyses (see NSIDC Special Report 5: An Intercomparison of DMSP F11- and F13-derived Sea Ice Products for summaries of differences among the SSM/I sensors), some sensor-to-sensor differences are likely to remain in these data, particularly for marginal ice zones.

During May 1986, residual weather effects and processing errors result in large bands of very low ice concentrations over the open ocean in the Weddell, Bellingshausen, and Amundsen seas in the Southern Hemisphere. Although the magnitude of these

Data Set Progress

in work

Originating Center

NSIDC_DAAC

Data Center

NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 102.7 KB
Distribution Format: Binary

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 133.3 KB
Distribution Format: Binary

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 300 KB
Distribution Format: PNG

Personnel

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Claire L. Parkinson
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5715
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: clairep@neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771

Claire L. Parkinson
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5715
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: clairep@neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771

Per Gloersen
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5710
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: per.gloersen@gsfc.nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771

Per Gloersen
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5710
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: per.gloersen@gsfc.nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771

H. Jay Zwally
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5643
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: Jay.Zwally@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

H. Jay Zwally
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5643
Fax: 1 301 614-5644
Email: Jay.Zwally@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Code 971

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

Donald J. Cavalieri
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5901 x
Fax: 1 301 614-5644 x
Email: Donald.J.Cavalieri@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 615

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

Donald J. Cavalieri
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 301 614-5901 x
Fax: 1 301 614-5644 x
Email: Donald.J.Cavalieri@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 615

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

Walt Meier
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

F. Fetterer
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • CIRES
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • 449 UCB

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309
Country: USA

Kenneth Knowles
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Matthew Savoie
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: savoie@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Mary J. Brodzik
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: brodzik@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449

Related URL

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Sea Ice Data at NSIDC

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Sea Ice Remote Sensing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations

Reference

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Cavalieri, D. J., C. l. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. Deriving Long-term Time Series of Sea Ice Cover from Satellite Passive-Microwave Multisensor Data Sets. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(7): 15,803-15,814.

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Comiso, J. C., S. F. Ackley, and A. l. Gordon. 1984. Antarctic Sea Ice Microwave Signatures and their Correlation with In-Situ Ice Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 89(C1):662-672. Comiso, J. C., T. C. Grenfell, D. Bell, M. Lange, and S. Ackley. 1989. Passive Microwave In-Situ Observations of Weddell Sea Ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 88(C12):7686-7704.

Comiso, J. C., T. C. Grenfell, M. Lange, A. Lohanick, R. Moore, and P. Wadhams. 1992. Microwave Remote Sensing of the Southern Ocean Ice Cover. Chapt. 12 In: Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Frank Carsey, editor. American Geophysical Union. Washington, D. C. 243-259. Comiso, J. C., and K. Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Satellite Data and their Applications. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(12): 31,361-31,385.

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Eppler, D. T., L. D. Farmer, A. W. Lohanick, M. A. Anderson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, T. C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J. A. Maslanik, C. Matzler, R. A. Melloh, I. Rubenstein, C. T. Swift. 1992. Passive Microwave Signatures of Sea Ice. In Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, ed. F. Carsey, Geophysical Monograph 68 (AGU).

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Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1991a. Variations of Extent, Area, and Open Water of the Polar Sea Ice Covers: 1978-1987, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change, G. Weller, C. L. Wilson, and B. A. B. Severin, eds., Geophysical Institute, University of Fairbanks, Alaska. 778 pages.

Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1991b. Recent Variations in Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Covers. Nature 352:33-36.

Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1988a. Variations in the Arctic, Antarctic, and Global Sea Ice Covers During 1978-1987 as Observed with the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer. Journal of Geophysical Research 93:10,666-10,674.

Gloersen, P. and W. J. Campbell. 1988b. Satellite and Aircraft Passive-microwave Observations During the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in 1984. Journal of Geophysical Research 93:6837-6846.

Gloersen P. and D. J. Cavalieri. 1986. Reduction of Weather Effects in the Calculation of Sea Ice Concentration from Microwave Radiances. Journal of Geophysical Research 91(C3):3913-3919.

Gloersen, P, and A. Mernicky. 1997. Oscillatory Behavior in Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations. In AGU Antarctic Research Series: Antarctic Sea Ice Physical Properties and Processes. Editor M. O. Jeffries. In press. Gloersen, P., E. Mollo-Christensen, and P. Hubanks. 1989. Observations of Arctic Polar Lows with the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer, in Polar and Arctic Lows, P. F. Twitchell, E. A. Rasmussen, and K. L. Davidson, eds., A. Deepak, Hampton, Virginia, 359-371.

Gloersen, P., C. l. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. Spatial Distribution of Trends and Seasonality in the Hemispheric Sea Ice Covers: 1978-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(9): 20,827-20,835.

Gloersen, P., J. Yu, and E. Mollo-Christensen. 1996. Oscillatory Behavior in Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:6641-6650.

Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, C. l. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1993. Satellite Passive Microwave Observations and Analysis of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987. Annals of Glaciology 17:149-154.

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