Entry_ID: NSIDC-0024
Entry_Title: Nimbus-7 SMMR Derived Monthly Global Snow Cover and Snow Depth
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Chang, A. T.C. 
   Dataset_Title: Nimbus-7 SMMR Derived Monthly Global Snow Cover and Snow Depth
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2003-06-11
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0024.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Alfred
   Middle_Name: T.C.
   Last_Name: Chang
   Email: achang@rainfall.gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5766 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5808 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: Code 974.0
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Alfred
   Middle_Name: T.C.
   Last_Name: Chang
   Email: achang@rainfall.gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5766 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5808 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: Code 974.0
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Keyword: Cryosphere
Keyword: EOSDIS
Keyword: Snow
Keyword: Snow Cover
Keyword: Snow Depth
Sensor_Name: RADIOMETERS
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1978-11-01
   Stop_Date: 1987-08-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -85
   Northernmost_Latitude: 0
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 0
   Northernmost_Latitude: 85
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ASIA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: SOUTH AMERICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: GLOBAL
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: IMG
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Chang, A.T.C., J. L. Foster, and D.K. Hall. 1987. Nimbus-7 SMMR derived global 
   snow cover parameters. Annals of Glaciology. 9:39-44.

   Foster, J.L., D.K. Hall, and A.T.C. Chang. 1987. Remote sensing of snow.  Eos, 
   Transactions of the AGU. 68(32):681-684.

   Hall, D.K. 1988. Assessment of polar climate change using satellite 
   technology.  Reviews of Geophysics, 26(1):26-39.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The data set consists of monthly global snow cover and snow depth derived from 
   Nimbus-7 SMMR data for 1978 through 1987. The SMMR data are interpolated for 
   spatial and temporal gaps, and averaged for display in polar stereographic 
   projection. Maps are based on six-day average brightness temperature data from 
   the middle week of each month. Data are placed into 1/2 degree latitude by 1/2 
   degree longitude grid cells uniformly subdividing a polar stereographic map 
   according to the geographic coordinates of the center of the radiometers' 
   fields of view.  Overlapping data from separate orbits in the same six-day 
   period are averaged to give a single brightness temperature assumed to be at 
   the cell's center. Oceans and bays are masked so that only microwave data for 
   land areas are displayed.

   Comparisons of SMMR snow cover maps with previous maps produced by NOAA/NESDIS 
   and US Air Force Global Weather Center indicate that the total snow covered 
   area derived from SMMR is usually about ten percent less than that measured by 
   the earlier products, because passive microwave sensors often can't detect 
   shallow dry snow less than about 5 cm deep. Snow depths are comparable, 
   showing SMMR results to be especially good for uniform snow covered areas such 
   as the Canadian high plains and Russian steppes. Heavily forested and 
   mountainous areas tend to mask the microwave snow signatures, and SMMR snow 
   depth derivations are less reliable in those areas.

   Formerly distributed by NASA/GSFC/NSSDC and NASA Pilot Land Data System 
   (PLDS), these data are now available via ftp from NSIDC.

End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2003-06-11
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-08-26
DIF_Revision_History:  updated version to 1