Entry_ID: NSIDC-0001
Entry_Title: DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Maslanik, J. and J. Stroeve. 
   Dataset_Title: DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2004-05-10updated 2012
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 4
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0001.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jim
   Last_Name: Maslanik
   Email: nsidc@kryos.colorado.edu
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jim
   Last_Name: Maslanik
   Email: nsidc@kryos.colorado.edu
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Julienne
   Last_Name: Stroeve
   Email: stroeve@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Walt
   Last_Name: Meier
   Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Microwave
   Variable_Level_1: Brightness Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Microwave
   Variable_Level_1: Brightness Temperature
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Antarctic
Keyword: Arctic
Keyword: EOSDIS
Keyword: Gridded Data
Keyword: NSIDC DAAC
Keyword: Passive Microwave
Keyword: Polar
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: SSMIS > Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F11 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F13 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F8 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-3/F17 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1987-07-09
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: -39
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 30
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: CANADA
   Location_Subregion2: HUDSON BAY
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Detailed_Location: BAFFIN BAY
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: BEAUFORT SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: CHUKCHI SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Detailed_Location: NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Detailed_Location: GREENLAND SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion2: BERING SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: SOUTHERN OCEAN
   Detailed_Location: AMUNDSEN SEA
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 day
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 12.5 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 12.5 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 day
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Group: Quality

   Beginning with January 2000, processing of brightness temperature data was 
   modified to include two additional quality control steps. The first performs a 
   statistical analysis on the brightness temperature data to look for possible 
   calibration errors. The second was an along-scan adjustment that corrects for 
   interference by the cold-space reflector at scans of 100 or greater, and the 
   difference between antenna temperature observations and the Wentz radiative 
   transfer model. Corrections can be as large as one kelvin. brightness 
   temperature data that included these additional quality control steps are only 
   available for dates after January 2000.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 0.2 to 1 MB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Algorithm and Data User Manual (ADUM) for the Special Sensor Microwave 
   Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). 2002. Northrop Grumman Corporation Space Systems 
   Division. Technical Report 12621. Azusa, California USA.

   Abdalati, W., K. Steffen, C. Otto, and K. C. Jezek. 1995. Comparison of 
   Brightness Temperatures from SSM/I Instruments on the DMSP F8 and F11 
   Satellites for Antarctica and the Greenland Ice Sheet. International Journal 
   of Remote Sensing 16(7):1223-1229.  Ackley, S. F. 1979. Mass Balance Aspects 
   of Weddell Sea Pack Ice. Journal of Glaciology 24(90):391-406.

   Ackley, S. F., A. J. Gow, K. R. Buck, and K. M. Golden. 1980. Sea Ice Studies 
   in the Weddell Sea Aboard USCGC Polar Sea. Antarctic Journal of U. S. 
   15(5):84-86.

   Bonbright, D. I. 1984. PODS SSM/I Functional Requirements (Version 1.0). Jet 
   Propulsion Laboratory Document 715-63.

   Bonbright, D. I., J. W. Brown, J. E. Hilland, I. T. Hsu, J. A. Johnson, T. L. 
   Kotlarek, R. A. Lassanyi, C. L. Miller, C. S. Morris, and F. J. Salamone. 
   1987. NASA Ocean Data System Version 3.0. User handbook. Jet Propulsion 
   Laboratory. Document 715-66, 50pp. + appendices.

   Campbell, W. J., P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1984. Aspects of Arctic Sea 
   Ice Observable by Sequential Passive-microwave Observations from the Nimbus 5 
   Satellite. In Arctic technology and policy. I. Dyer and C. Chryssostomidis, 
   eds. New York: Hemisphere Publishing. pp. 197-222.

   Carsey, F. D. 1982. Arctic Sea Ice Distribution at End of Summer 1973-1976 
   from Satellite Microwave Data. Journal of Geophysical Research 87:5809-5835.

   Cavalieri, D. J. and P. Gloersen. 1984. Determination of Sea Ice Parameters 
   with the Nimbus 7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89(D4):5355-5369.

   Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of Sea 
   Ice Parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   89(D4):5355-5369.

   Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, and T. T. Wilheit. 1986. Aircraft and Satellite 
   Passive Microwave Observations of the Bering Sea Cover During MIZEX West. IEEE 
   Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing GE-24:368-377.

   Cavalieri, D. J., K. M. St. Germain, and C. T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of 
   Weather Effects in the Calculation of Sea Ice Concentration with the DMSP 
   SSM/I. Journal of Glaciology 41 (139): 455-464. 

   Cavalieri, D. J., J. Crawford, M. Drinkwater, W. J. Emery, D. T. Eppler, L. D. 
   Farmer, M. Goodberlet, R. Jentz, A. Milman, C. Morris, R. Onstott, A. 
   Schweiger, R. Shuchman, K. Steffen, C. T. Swift, C. Wackerman, and R. L. 
   Weaver. 1992.

   NASA Sea Ice Validation Program for the DMSP SSM/I: Final Report. NASA 
   Technical Memorandum 104559. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
   Washington, D.C. 126 pages.

   Cavalieri, D. J., J. Crawford, M. R. Drinkwater, D. Eppler, L. D. Farmer, R. 
   R. Jentz and C. C. Wackerman. 1991. Aircraft Active and Passive Microwave 
   Validation of Sea Ice Concentration from the DMSP SSM/I. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 96(C12):21,989-22,009.

   Comiso, J. C. 1991. Satellite Remote Sensing of the Polar Oceans. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 2:295-434. Comiso, J. C. 1990.

   Arctic Multiyear Ice Classification and Summer Ice Cover Using Passive 
   Microwave Satellite Data. Journal of Geophysical Research 95(C8):13411-13422.

   Comiso, J. C. 1986. Characteristics of Arctic Winter Sea Ice from Satellite 
   Multispectral Microwave Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 91(C1): 
   975-994.

   Comiso, J. C. 1983. Sea Ice Effective Microwave Emissivities from Satellite 
   Passive Microwave and Infrared Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   88(C12):7686-7704.

   Comiso, J. C., and C. W. Sullivan. 1986. Satellite Microwave and in-situ 
   Observations of the Weddell Sea Ice Cover and its Marginal Ice Zone. Journal 
   of Geophysical Research 91(C8):9663-9681. Comiso, J. C., S. F. Ackley, and A. 
   L. Gordon. 1984.

   Antarctic Sea Ice Microwav Signatures and Their Correlation with in-situ Ice 
   Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 89(C1):662-672.

   Comiso, J. C., T. C. Grenfell, D. Bell, M. Lange, and S. Ackley. 1989. Passive 
   Microwave in-situ Observations of Weddell Sea ice. Journal of Geophysical 
   Research 88(C12):7686-7704.

   Comiso, J. C., P. Wadhams, W. Krabill, R. Swift, J. Crawford, and W. Tucker. 
   1991. Top/Bottom Multisensor Remote Sensing of Arctic Sea Ice. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 96(C2):2693-2711.

   Gloersen P. and D. J. Cavalieri. 1986. Reduction of Weather Effects in the 
   Calculation of Sea Ice Concentration from Microwave Radiances. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 91(C3):3913-3919.

   Gloersen P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, 
   H. J. Zwally. 1992. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive 
   Microwave Observations and Analysis. NASA Special Publication 511.

   Goodberlet, M. A. 1990. Special Sensor Microwave/Imager 
   Calibration/Validation. Ph.D. dissertation submitted to the University of 
   Massachusetts.

   Grenfell, T. C. and J. C. Comiso. 1986. Multifrequency Passive Microwave 
   Observations of First-year Sea Ice Grown in a Tank. IEEE Transactions on 
   Geoscience and Remote Sensing GE-24:826-831.  Hollinger, J. P. 1989. DMSP 
   Special Sensor Microwave/Imager Calibration/Validation. Naval Research Labs. 
   Washington, D.C.

   Hollinger, J. P. and R. C. Lo. 1983. SSM/I Project Summary Report. Naval 
   Research Laboratory. NRL Memorandum Report 5055. 106 pp.

   Hollinger, J. P., J. L. Pierce, G. A. Poe. 1990. SSM/I Instrument Evaluation. 
   IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28(5):781-790.

   Hollinger, J. P., B. E. Troy, R. O. Ramseier, K. W. Asmus, M. F. Hartman, and 
   C. A. Luther. 1984. Microwave Emission from High Arctic Sea Ice During 
   Freeze-up. Journal of Geophysical Research 89(C5):8104-8122.

   Hughes Aircraft Company. 1986. Data Requirements Document for Fleet Numerical 
   Oceanography Center, Rev. B.

   Hughes Aircraft Company. 1980. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), 
   Computer Program Product Specification (Specification for FNMOC). Vol. II, 
   Sensor Data Processing, Computer Program Component (SMISDP).

   Martino, M. G., D. J. Cavalieri, and P. Gloersen. 1995 An Improved Land Mask 
   for the SSM/I Grid. NASA Technical Memorandum TM104625.  Maslanik, J. A. 1992. 
   Effects of Weather on the Retrieval of Sea Ice Concentration and Ice Type from 
   Passive Microwave Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 13(1):37-54.

   Massom, R. A. 1991. Satellite Remote Sensing of Polar Regions. Boca Raton: 
   Lewis Publishing.

   Molthan, A. L., and M. R. Anderson. 2005. Locating and Removing Problematic 
   Data in the DMSP SSM/I Data Sets. Abstract. 8th Conference on Polar 
   Meteorology and Oceanography, 9-13 January 2005, San Diego, CA. View PDF.

   Pearson, F. 1990. Map Projections: Theory and Applications. CRC Press. Boca 
   Raton, Florida. 372 pages.

   Poe, G. A. and R. W. Conway. 1990. A Study of the Geolocation Errors for the 
   Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and 
   Remote Sensing 28(5):791-799.

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   Professional Paper 1395. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 383 
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   Snyder, J. P. 1982. Map Projections Used by the U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. 
   Geological Survey Bulletin 1532.

   Steffen, K. and A. Schwieger. 1991. NASA Team Algorithm for Sea Ice 
   Concentration Retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special 
   Sensor Microwave/Imager: Comparison with Landsat Satellite Imagery. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 96(C12):21,971-21,988.

   Steffen, K., D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, K. St. Germain, P. Gloersen, J. 
   Key, and I. Rubinstein. 1992. The Estimation of Geophysical Parameters Using 
   Passive Microwave Algorithms. Chapter 10 In Microwave remote sensing of sea 
   ice. Frank Carsey, editor. American Geophysical Union. Washington, D.C. 243-259.

   Stroeve, J. 1998. Impact of Various Processing Options on SSM/I-derived 
   Brightness Temperatures. NSIDC Special Report-7. 
   http://nsidc.org/pubs/special/7/index.html

   Svendsen, E., K. Kloster, B. Farrelly, O. M. Johannessen, J. A. Johannessen, 
   W. J. Campbell, P. Gloersen, D. Cavalieri, and C. Matzler. 1983. Norwegian 
   Remote Sensing Experiment: Evaluation of the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel 
   Microwave Radiometer for Sea Ice Research. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   88(C5):2781-2791.

   Swift, C. T., D. J. Cavalieri. 1985. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Sea 
   Ice Research. EOS 66(49):1210-1212.

   Swift, C. T., Fedor, L. S. and Ramseier, R. O. 1985. An Algorithm to Measure 
   Sea Ice Concentration with Microwave Radiometers. Journal of Geophysical 
   Research 90(C1):1087-1099.

   Wadhams, P., M. A. Lange, and S. F. Ackley. 1987. The Ice Thickness 
   Distribution Across the Atlantic Sector of the Antarctic Ocean in Midwinter. 
   Journal of Geophysical Research 92(C13):14,535-14,552.

   Wentz, F. J. 1993. User's Manual: SSM/I Antenna Temperature Tapes. Rev. 2. 
   Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. Santa Rosa, CA. RSS Technical Report 120193.

   Wentz, F. J. 1992. Final Report, Production of SSM/I Data Sets. Remote Sensing 
   Systems, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA. RSS Technical Report 090192.

   Wentz, F. J. 1991. User's Manual: SSM/I Antenna Temperature Tapes. Remote 
   Sensing Systems, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA. RSS Technical Report 032588.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   NSIDC produces daily gridded brightness temperature data from orbital swath 
   data generated by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) aboard the 
   Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F8, F11, and F13 platforms and 
   the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) aboard DMSP-F17. The SSM/I 
   and SSMIS channels used to calculate brightness temperatures include 19.3 GHz 
   vertical and horizontal, 22.2 GHz vertical, 37.0 GHz vertical and horizontal, 
   85.5 GHz vertical and horizontal (on SSM/I), and 91.7 GHz vertical and 
   horizontal (on SSMIS). Thus, a total of nine channels result from vertical and 
   horizontal polarization for each of five frequencies, with the exception of 
   22.2 GHz, which is vertical only. The gridded brightness temperatures are 
   distributed in polar stereographic projection. Orbital data for each 24-hour 
   period are mapped to respective grid cells using a simple sum and average 
   method (drop-in-the-bucket method). 85.5 GHz and 91.7 GHz data are gridded at 
   a resolution of 12.5 km, with all other frequencies at a resolution of 25 km. 
   All SSM/I and SSMIS gridded brightness temperature data are stored as scaled 
   2-byte integers in flat binary arrays and are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/faqs/ssmi_faq.html
   Description: Frequently asked questions.
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/faqs/ssmi_faq.html
   Group: Description

      SSM/I Brightness Temperature and Sea IceConcentration Grids: Frequently Asked 
      Questions(FAQs)

   End_Group
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2004-05-10
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-06-19
DIF_Revision_History:  updated creators and publisher