Entry_ID: GGD652
Entry_Title: Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Millar C. and R. Westfall
   Dataset_Title: Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2009-02-06
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd652.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Constance
   Last_Name: Millar
   Email: cmillar@fs.fed.us
   Phone: 1 510 559 6435 
   Fax: 1 510  559 6440 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: USDA Forest Service
      Address: Pacific Southwest Research Station
      Address: P.O. Box 245
      City: Berkeley
      Province_or_State: CA
      Postal_Code: 94701
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Robert
   Last_Name: Westfall
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: USDA Forest Service
      Address: Pacific Southwest Research Station
      Address: P.O. Box 245
      City: Berkeley
      Province_or_State: CA
      Postal_Code: 94701
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 34.5
   Northernmost_Latitude: 38.8
   Westernmost_Longitude: -119.9
   Easternmost_Longitude: -118.2
   Minimum_Altitude: 2225 meters
   Maximum_Altitude: 3932 meters
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
   Location_Subregion2: CALIFORNIA
   Detailed_Location: SIERRA NEVADA
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: FGDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 36 KB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Daly, C., Neilson, R.P., Phillips, D.L. 1994. A statistical-topographic model 
   for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain.  Journal of 
   Applied Meteorology 33:140–158.

   Millar, C. I., and R. D. Westfall.  2008.  Rock glaciers and related 
   periglacial landforms in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA; inventory, distribution 
   and climatic relationships. Quaternary International 188:90-104.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in 
   elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east.  Most of the 
   mapped locations are east of the Sierran crest. The climate in the region is 
   Mediterranean, with most of the precipitation in the winter months coming as 
   snow at high elevations, but with some monsoonal precipitation in the summer, 
   particularly in the southern end of the range.   There is a very steep 
   gradient in decreasing precipitation eastward from the Sierran crest as a 
   result of rain-shadow orographic effects from the predominately 
   eastward-moving Pacific frontal storms.  PRISM-estimated (Daly et al. 1994) 
   annual precipitation for the RIF locations ranged from 580 to 1880 mm; July 
   precipitation from 5 to 33 mm.  Mean annual maximum temperatures ranged from 
   1.8 to 15.2 oC, January from -5.7 to 6.2 oC, and July from 11 to 26.3 oC.  
   Mean annual minima ranged from -8.1 to -0.4 oC, January from -15 to -7 oC, and 
   July from 1.2 to 8.9 oC.  The highest temperatures and lowest precipitation 
   were largely at relict Pleistocene rock glaciers, which tended to be farthest 
   east of the Sierran crest and lower in elevation. We mapped over 430 RIFs, 
   based on field surveys and grouped them into six classes based on morphology 
   and location. These categories constitute a greater range of frozen-ground 
   features than are commonly described in rock-glacier surveys.  Although 
   granitic substrates dominate the Sierra Nevada, they do not in the eastern 
   escarpment, so substrates in the RIF database are about equally divided 
   between granitic and metamorphic.  Ages of rock glaciers ranged from current 
   (active) to relict (late Pleistocene).  We interpreted the presence of outlet 
   springs, basal lakes, suspended silt in outlet streams, and fringing 
   phreatophytic vegetation, in addition to morphologic indications of current 
   rock movement, as evidence for interstitial ice, either persistent or seasonal.

   
One comma-delimited ASCII file containing information for 430 rock-ice features is available. End_Group Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF Metadata_Version: 9.7 DIF_Creation_Date: 2009-02-06 Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-28 DIF_Revision_History: Added an archiving data center.