Entry_ID: GGD641
Entry_Title: Arctic Soil Freeze/Thaw Status from SMMR and SSM/I
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Zhang, T. and R. Armstrong
   Dataset_Title: Arctic Soil Freeze/Thaw Status from SMMR and SSM/I
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2003-05-27
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 2
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd641.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Tingjun
   Middle_Name: Z
   Last_Name: Zhang
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2359 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology
      Address: UCB449
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: Colorado
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Richard
   Last_Name: Armstrong
   Email: rlax@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: Colorado
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Seasonally Frozen Ground
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Seasonally Frozen Ground
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
ISO_Topic_Category: Geoscientific Information
Keyword: Seasonal Freeze/thaw
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Source_Name: DMSP > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1978-10-01
   Stop_Date: 2004-06-30
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 45
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 day
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 148.3 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Armstrong, R.L., and M.J. Brodzik. 2002. Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid weekly 
   snow cover and sea ice extent, Version 2. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice 
   Data Center. CD-ROM.

   Brodzik, M.J. 1997. EASE-Grid: A versatile set of equal-area projections and 
   grids. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

   Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 1998. 
   Digital Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. In 
   International Permafrost Association, Data and Information Working Group, 
   comp. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS), version 1.0. Boulder, 
   CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. CD-ROM.

   Chang, A.T.C., J.L. Foster, and D.K. Hall. 1987. Nimbus-7 SMMR derived global 
   snow cover parameters. Annals of Glaciology 9:39-44.

   Global Soil Data Task. 2000. Global gridded surfaces of selected soil 
   characteristics. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme - Data and 
   Information Services (IGBP-DIS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 
   Distributed Active Archive Center. Available online at 
   http://www.daac.ornl.gov. 

   Goodrich, L.E. 1982. Efficient numerical technique for one-dimensional thermal 
   problems with phase change. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 
   21:615-621.

   Holden, J.B., C.J. Vörösmarty, S. Frolking, and R. Lammers. 2001. A 
   large-scale water balance model for permafrost terrain. Arctic and Alpine 
   Research. In press.

   Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. 
   Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. 
   Higgens, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, 
   R. Jenne, and D. Joseph. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. 
   Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77:437-471.

   Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). 2000. Canadian Snow Data CD-ROM. 
   Downsview, Ontario, Canada: Meteorological Service of Canada, CRYSYS Project, 
   Climate Processes and Earth Observation Division.

   Oelke, C., T. Zhang, M. Serreze, and R. Armstrong. 2003. Regional-scale 
   modeling of soil freeze/thaw over the Arctic drainage basin. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research. In press.

    Sturm, M., J. Holmgren, and G.E. Liston. 1995. A seasonal snow cover 
   classification system for local to global applications. Journal of Climate 
   8:1261-1283.

   Zhang, T., and R.L. Armstrong. 2001. Soil freeze/thaw cycles over snow-free 
   land detected by passive microwave remote sensing. Geophysical Research 
   Letters 28(5): 763-766.

   Zhang, T., J.A. Heginbottom, R.G. Barry, and J. Brown. 2000. Further 
   statistics on the distribution of permafrost and ground-ice in the Northern 
   Hemisphere. Polar Geography 24(2):126-131.

   Zhang, T., R.G. Barry, K. Knowles, J.A. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 1999. 
   Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in 
   the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2):147-169.

   Zhang, T., T.E. Osterkamp, and K. Stamnes. 1996. Influence of the depth hoar 
   layer of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime. Water Resources 
   Research 32(7):2075-2086.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set contains near-surface (< 5 cm) soil freeze/thaw status on 
   snow-free and snow-covered land surfaces over the Arctic terrestrial drainage 
   basin. The near-surface soil freeze/thaw status is determined by using 
   passive-microwave remote sensing data over snow-free land and a numerical 
   model over snow-covered land. Data are projected to a 25 km x 25 km Northern 
   Hemisphere EASE-Grid. Version 2 of this data set greatly extends the temporal 
   coverage and makes use of data from SMMR as well as SSM/I. Data are from 
   October 1978 to June 2004. Data are in ASCII text format and are available via 
   FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/ease/index.html
   Description: All About EASE-Grid
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2003-05-27
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-03-05
DIF_Revision_History: Removed the version number from the title.