Entry_ID: GGD353
Entry_Title: Active Layer Monitoring, Arctic and Subarctic Canada
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Nixon, F. Mark
   Dataset_Title: Active Layer Monitoring, Arctic and Subarctic Canada
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2003-05-22updated January 2009
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 6
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd353.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: F. Mark
   Last_Name: Nixon
   Email: mnixon@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca
   Phone: 1 613 992-2469 
   Fax: 1 613  992-0190 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Geological Survey of Canada
      Address: 191- 601 rue Booth Street
      City: Ottawa
      Province_or_State: Ontario
      Postal_Code: K1A 0E8
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: R.
   Last_Name: Mackay
   Phone: 1 604 822-2663 
   Fax: 1 604  822-6150 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of British Columbia
      Address: Department of Geography
      Address: 217-1984 West Mall
      City: Vancouver
      Province_or_State: BC
      Postal_Code: V6T 1Z2
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Agriculture
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Agriculture
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Moisture/Water Content
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Agriculture
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Moisture/Water Content
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Topography
   Variable_Level_1: Terrain Elevation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Active Layer
Keyword: Geocryology
Keyword: Monitoring
Keyword: Periglacial Processes
Keyword: Permafrost
Keyword: Snow
Keyword: Soil Moisture
Keyword: Soil Temperature
Keyword: Thaw
Keyword: Thermokarst
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1991-01-01
   Stop_Date: 2007-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 61.883
   Northernmost_Latitude: 69.717
   Westernmost_Longitude: -134.95
   Easternmost_Longitude: -121.6
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: CANADA
   Detailed_Location: ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC CANADA, INCLUDING 10 CANADIAN
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: FGDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 865 KB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Aylsworth, J.M., and P.A. Egginton. 1994. Sensitivity of slopes to climate 
   change. Mackenzie Basin Impact Study, Interim report #2, Proceedings of the 
   sixth biennial AES/DIAND meeting on northern climate & mid study workshop of 
   the Mackenzie basin impact study. Environment Canada.

   Dyke, L.D., 2000. Stability of permafrost slopes in the Mackenzie Valley; In 
   The Physical Environment of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: A 
   Base Line for the Assessment of Environmental Change, Dyke LD, Brooks GR 
   (eds). Bulletin 547, Geological Survey of Canada, p. 161–169.

   Edlund, S.A., B.T. Alt, and K.L. Young. 1989. Interaction of climate, 
   vegetation, and soil hydrology at Hot Weather Creek, Fosheim Peninsula, 
   Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories. In Current Research 1989-D. Ottawa: 
   Geological Survey of Canada.

   Hinzman, L.D., and D.L. Kane. 1992. Potential response of an arctic watershed 
   during a period of global warming. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(D3): 
   2811-2820.

   Kokelj S.V. and C.R. Burn, 2005. Geochemistry of the active layer and 
   near-surface permafrost, Mackenzie delta region, Northwest Territories, 
   Canada; Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42(1), p. 37-48.

   Mackay, J.R. 1976. Ice-wedges as indicators of recent climatic change, western 
   Arctic coast. In Current Research 1976-A. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada. 

   Mackay, J.R. 1975. The stability of permafrost and recent climatic change in 
   the Mackenzie Valley, N.W.T. In Report of Activities, Part B, Geological 
   Survey of Canada, Paper 75-1B. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

   Mackay, J.R. 1973. A frost tube for the determination of freezing in the 
   active layer above permafrost. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 10: 392-396.

   Nixon, F.M. 2000. Thaw-depth monitoring. In Physical Environment of the 
   Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: a Base Line for the Assessment of 
   Environmental Change, L.D. Dyke and G.R. Brooks, eds. Geological Survey of 
   Canada Bulletin 547: 119-126.

   Nixon, F.M., and A.E. Taylor. 1998. Regional active layer monitoring across 
   the sporadic, discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones, Mackenzie Valley, 
   northwestern Canada. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on 
   Permafrost, Yellowknife.

   Nixon, F.M., A.E. Taylor, V.S. Allen, and F. Wright. 1995. Active layer 
   monitoring in natural environments, lower Mackenzie Valley, Northwest 
   Territories. In Current Research 1995-B. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

    Nixon, F.M., and A.E. Taylor. 1994. Active layer monitoring in natural 
   environments, Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories. In Current Research 
   1994-B. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

   Nixon, F.M., C. Tarnocai, and L. Kutny. 2003. Long-term active layer 
   monitoring: Mackenzie Valley, northwest Canada. In Permafrost, Vol. 2, M. 
   Philips, S. Springman, and L.U. Arenson, eds. Lisse, The Netherlands: A.A. 
   Balkema Publishers, Swets & Zeitlinger.

   Smith, S.L., M.M. Burgess, and F.M. Nixon. 2001. Response of active-layer and 
   permafrost temperatures to warming during 1998 in the Mackenzie Delta, 
   Northwest Territories and at Canadian Forces Station Alert and Baker Lake, 
   Nunavut. In Current Research 2001-E5. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

   Tarnocai C., F.M. Nixon, and L. Kutny. 2004. Circumpolar Active-Layer 
   Monitoring (CALM) sites in the Mackenzie Valley, northwestern Canada. 
   Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 15(2): 141-153.

   Quinton WL, Shirazi T, Carey SK, Pomeroy JW., 2005. Soil water storage and 
   active-layer development in a sub-alpine tundra hillslope, southern Yukon 
   Territory, Canada; Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 16: p. 369–382.

   Waelbroeck, C., P. Monfray, W.C. Oechel, S. Hastings, and G. Vourlitis. 1997. 
   The impact of permafrost thawing on the carbon dynamics of tundra. Geophysical 
   Research Letters 24: 229-232.

   Wolfe, S.A., E. Kotler, and F.M. Nixon. 2000. Recent warming impacts in the 
   Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, and northern Yukon Territory coastal 
   areas. In Current Research 2000-B1. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada. 
   Document is available online at: http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/bookstore/.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This project involves measuring regional and site variability in maximum 
   annual active layer development and vertical surface movement over permafrost, 
   and monitoring sites over time in order to observe trends. The project records 
   maximum thaw penetration, maximum heave and subsidence, late season snow 
   depths, current depth of thaw, elevation, and soil properties. Some sites are 
   twinned with soil- and air-temperature recording equipment.

   The project includes about 60 monitoring stations extending from Fort Simpson, 
   Canada, in the upper Mackenzie River valley to the Beaufort Sea coast at North 
   Head, Richards Island, Canada. Ten of the sites are part of the IPA's 
   Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Program. CALM site numbers are in 
   parentheses after the site names: North Head (C3), Taglu (C4), Lousy Point 
   (C5), Reindeer Depot (C7), Rengleng River (C8), Mountain River (C9), Norman 
   Wells (C11), Ochre River (C13), Willowlake River (C14), and Fort Simpson 
   (C15). See the CALM Program Web page for geographic coordinates and site 
   history for all CALM sites.

   These data are the property of the people of Canada and the responsibility of 
   the Geological Survey of Canada. If published, adequate acknowledgment is 
   expected. Please contact F. M. Nixon regarding use of the data set or access 
   to the extended data.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd313.html
   Description: CALM Program
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://www.udel.edu/Geography/calm
   Description: CALM Web Page
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://gtnp.org/index_e.html
   Description: Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2003-05-22
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-09-18
DIF_Revision_History: deleted dupe URL in Related URL field