Entry_ID: GGD318
Entry_Title: Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Brown, J., O. Ferrians, J. A. Heginbottom, and E. Melnikov. 
   Dataset_Title: Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2014-04-22
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd318.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: J.
   Middle_Name: Alan
   Last_Name: Heginbottom
   Email: heginbottom@gsc.emr.ca
   Phone: 1 613 992-7813 
   Fax: 1 613  992-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Natural Resources Canada
      Address: Terrain Science Division
      Address: 601 Booth Street
      City: Ottawa
      Province_or_State: Ontario
      Postal_Code: K1A 0E8
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: J.
   Middle_Name: Alan
   Last_Name: Heginbottom
   Email: heginbottom@gsc.emr.ca
   Phone: 1 613 992-7813 
   Fax: 1 613  992-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Natural Resources Canada
      Address: Terrain Science Division
      Address: 601 Booth Street
      City: Ottawa
      Province_or_State: Ontario
      Postal_Code: K1A 0E8
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jerry
   Last_Name: Brown
   Email: jerrybrown@igc.apc.org
   Phone: 1 508 457-4982 
   Fax: 1 508  457-4982 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: International Permafrost Association
      Address: PO Box 7
      City: Woods Hole
      Province_or_State: MA
      Postal_Code: 02543
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jerry
   Last_Name: Brown
   Email: jerrybrown@igc.apc.org
   Phone: 1 508 457-4982 
   Fax: 1 508  457-4982 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: International Permafrost Association
      Address: PO Box 7
      City: Woods Hole
      Province_or_State: MA
      Postal_Code: 02543
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Oscar
   Last_Name: Ferrians
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: E.S.
   Last_Name: Melnikov
   Email: emelnikov@mtu-net.ru
   Phone: 7-095-135-9828 
   Fax:  7-095-135-6582 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
      Address: Laboratory of Geocryological Prediction and Informatics of Earth Cryosphere Inst
      Address: Vavilov Str. 30/6-74a
      City: Moscow
      Postal_Code: GSP-1, 119
      Country: Russia
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: E.S.
   Last_Name: Melnikov
   Email: emelnikov@mtu-net.ru
   Phone: 7-095-135-9828 
   Fax:  7-095-135-6582 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
      Address: Laboratory of Geocryological Prediction and Informatics of Earth Cryosphere Inst
      Address: Vavilov Str. 30/6-74a
      City: Moscow
      Postal_Code: GSP-1, 119
      Country: Russia
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Ground Ice
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Ground Ice
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Geoscientific Information
ISO_Topic_Category: Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover
Keyword: Boreholes
Keyword: Continuous Permafrost
Keyword: Discontinuous Permafrost
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Permafrost Extent
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 28
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
   Detailed_Location: CIRCUMPOLAR
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 24 MB
   Distribution_Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)
End_Group
Group: Multimedia_Sample
   File: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/maps/images/ipa_map_tmb.gif
   URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/maps/ipa_browse.html
   Caption: Map Thumbnail
End_Group
Group: Multimedia_Sample
   File: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/maps/images/ipa_map_brws.gif
   Caption: Browse image of Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions.
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Baranov, I. Ya., ed. 1956. Geocryological map of the USSR. Main Department for 
   Geodesy and Cartography (GUGK), Moscow, scale 1:10,000,000 (Russian).

   Baranov, I. Ya. 1959. Geographical distribution of seasonally frozen ground 
   and permafrost. National Research Council of Canada, Technical Translation 
   No.1121, Ottawa.

   Baranov, I. Ya., ed. 1965. Principles of geocryological zonation of the 
   permafrost region. Nauka, Moscow, 152 pp. (Russian).

   Baranov, I. Ya. 1982. Geocryological map of the USSR. Main Department for 
   Geodesy and Cartography (GUGK), Moscow, scale 1:7,500,000.

   Baulin., V.V., ed. 1982. Map of geocryological regions of the West Siberian 
   Plain, USSR Ministry of Geology, VSEGINGEO, scale 1:1,500,000, 4 sheets 
   (Russian).

   Black, R.F. 1954. Permafrost -- a review. Bulletin of the Geological Society 
   of America, Vol. 65, pp. 839-856.

   Bliss, L.C. 1979. Vegetation and revegetation within permafrost terrain. in 
   Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Permafrost. National 
   Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 2, pp. 31-50.

   Bostock, H.S. 1970. Physiographic regions of Canada. Geological Survey of 
   Canada, Map 1254A, scale 1:5,000,000.

   Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov, eds. 1997. 
   Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. Washington, DC: 
   U.S. Geological Survey in Cooperation with the Circum-Pacific Council for 
   Energy and Mineral Resources. Circum-Pacific Map Series CP-45, scale 
   1:10,000,000, 1 sheet.

   Brown, R.J.E. 1967. Permafrost in Canada. National Research Council of Canada, 
   Publication 9769, and Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1246A, Ottawa, scale 
   1:7,603,200.

   Brown, R.J.E. 1973. Permafrost. National Atlas of Canada. Department of 
   Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Plate 11-12, scale 1:15,000,000.

   Brown, R.J.E. 1978. Permafrost = P?rgelisol [Canada]. Hydrological Atlas of 
   Canada, Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Ottawa, Plate 32, scale 
   1:10,000,000.

   Crawford, C.B., and G.H. Johnston. 1971. Construction on permafrost. Canadian 
   Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 236-251. Ershov, E.D., ed. 1988,1989. 
   Geocryology of the USSR. Nauka, Moscow, 5 volumes(Russian).

   Ferrians ,O.J., Jr. 1965. Permafrost map of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey, 
   Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations, Map I-445, scale 1:2,500,000. 

   Fotiev, S.M. 1978. Effect of long-term cryometamorphism of earth materials on 
   the formation of ground water. in Proceedings of the Third International 
   Conference on Permafrost, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, 
   pp. 181-187.

   Fotiev, S.M., N.S. Danilova, and N.S. Shevleva. 1978. Zonal and regional 
   characteristics of permafrost in central Siberia. in Permafrost -- The USSR 
   Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of 
   Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 104-110.

   Gorbunov, A.P. 1978. Permafrost investigations in high-mountain regions. 
   Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 10, pp. 283-294.

   Heginbottom, J.A. 1984. The mapping of permafrost. Canadian Geographer, Vol. 
   XXVIII, pp. 78-83.

   Heginbottom, J.A., and L.K. Radburn. 1992. Permafrost and ground ice 
   conditions of Northwestern Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1691A, 
   scale 1:1,000,000.

   Heginbottom, J.A., and M-A. Dubreuil. 1993. A new permafrost and ground ice 
   map for the National Atlas of Canada. in Proceedings, Sixth International 
   Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, vol. 1, pp. 255-260.

   Heginbottom, J.A., and M-A. Dubreuil. (1995) Canada -- Permafrost. National 
   Atlas of Canada, 5th edition, scale 1:7,500,000, Plate 2.1 (MCR 4177). 

   Hughes, O.L. 1969. Distribution of open system pingos in central Yukon 
   Territory with respect to glacial limits. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 
   Paper 69-34, 8 pp.

   Hughes, T. 1973. Glacial permafrost and Pleistocene ice ages. in Permafrost -- 
   the North American Contribution to the Second International Conference, 
   National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 213-223.

   Judge, A.S. 1973. Deep temperature observations in the Canadian north. in 
   Permafrost -- the North American Contribution to the Second International 
   Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 35-40.

   Kudryavtsev, V.A., K.A. Kondrat'eva, and A.G. Gavrilov. 1978. Geocryological 
   map of the USSR. General Permafrost Studies; Materials for the Third 
   International Conference on Permafrost. Nauka, Novosibirsk, scale 1:2,500,000 
   (Russian).

   Mackay, J.R. 1972. The world of underground ice. Annals of the Association of 
   American Geographers, Vol. 62, pp. 1-22.

   Mackay, J.R. and S.R. Dallimore. 1992. Massive ice of the Tuktoyaktuk area, 
   western Arctic coast, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 
   1235-1249.

   Melnikov, E.S. 1988. Natural geosystems of the plain cryolithozones. in 
   Permafrost, Fifth International Conference, Proceedings. Tapir Publishers, 
   Trondheim, Norway, vol. 1, pp. 208-212.

   Melnikov, P.I. 1966. Geocryological map, Yakustkoi, A.S.S.R. Akademia Nauk 
   SSSR, Moscow, scale 1:5,000,000 (Russian).

   Nikiforoff, C. 1928. The perpetually frozen subsoil of Siberia. Soil Science, 
   Vol. 26, pp. 61-81. Pewe, T.L. 1982. Geologic hazards of the Fairbanks area. 
   Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Special 
   Report 15, 109 pp.

   Pewe, T.L. 1983. Alpine permafrost in the contiguous United States: a review. 
   Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 15, pp. 145-156.

   Popov, A.I., S.P. Kachurin, and N.A. Grave. 1966. Features of the development 
   of frozen geomorphology in northern Eurasia. in Proceedings -- Permafrost 
   International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., NRC 
   Publication 1287, pp. 481-487.

   Popov, A.I., et al. 1985. Map of cryolithology of the USSR. Faculty of 
   Geography, M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow, scale 1:4,000,000, 4 sheets 
   (Russian).

   Popov, A. I., et al. 1990. Cryolithological map of North America. Faculty of 
   Geography, M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow, scale 1:6,000,000, 4 sheets 
   (Russian).

   Rapp, A., and L. Annersten. 1969. Permafrost and tundra polygons in northern 
   Sweden. in The Periglacial Environment, T.L. Pewe, ed., McGill-Queen's 
   University Press, Montreal, pp. 65-91.

   Shumskiy, P.A, and B.I. Vtyurin. 1966. Underground ice. in  Proceedings -- 
   Permafrost International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 
   D.C. NRC Publication 1287, pp. 108-113.

   Shi Yafeng and Mi Disheng, eds. 1988. Map of snow, ice and frozen ground in 
   China. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, Academia Sinica, scale 
   1:4,000,000, 2 sheets.

   Sodnom, N., and A.L. Yanshin, eds. 1990. Geocryology and Geocryological 
   zonation. National Atlas of Mongolia, GUGK, Ulan Bator / Moscow, Plates 40 and 
   41, scale 1:4,500,000, 1:12,000,000.

   Tong Boliang, et al. 1982. Map of permafrost along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway. 
   Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, Academia Sinica, scale 
   1:600,000 (Chinese).

   Vtyurin, B.I. 1975. 'Ground ice of the USSR' (In Russian). Moscow: Nauka.

   Wahrhaftig, C. 1965. Physiographic divisions of Alaska. U.S. Geological 
   Survey, Professional Paper 482, 52 pp.

   Washburn, A.L. 1980. Geocryology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Halstead Press.

   Weidick, A. 1968. Observations on some Holocene glacier fluctuations in West 
   Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 165(6), 202 pp.  Williams, R.B.G. 1969. 
   Permafrost and temperature conditions in England during the last glacial 
   period in The Periglacial Environment. Edited by T.L. Pewe. Montreal: 
   McGill-Queen's University Press.

   Zhang, T., R.G. Barry, K. Knowles, J.A. Heginbottom, J. Brown. 1999. 
   Statistics and characteristics of Permafrost and ground ice Distribution in 
   the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2):132-154.

   Zhang, T., J.A. Heginbottomm R.G. Barry, J. Brown. 2000. Further Statistics on 
   the Distribution of Permafrost and Ground Ice in the Northern Hemisphere. 
   Polar Geography 24(2):126-131.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Circum-Arctic permafrost and ground ice map is available via ftp in ESRI 
   Shapefile format and Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) format. See 
   the Format section for an explanation of the files provided via FTP.

   The circumpolar permafrost and ground ice data contribute to a unified 
   international data set that depicts the distribution and properties of 
   permafrost and ground ice in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 90°N). The 
   re-gridded data set shows discontinuous, sporadic, or isolated permafrost 
   boundaries. Permafrost extent is estimated in percent area (90-100 percent, 
   50-90 percent, 10-50 percent, <10 percent, and no permafrost). Relative 
   abundance of ground ice in the upper 20 m is estimated in percent volume (>20 
   percent, 10-20 percent, <10 percent, and 0 percent). The data set also 
   contains the location of subsea and relict permafrost. the gridded data are 
   gridded at 12.5 km, 25 km, and 0.5 degree resolution. The shapefiles were 
   derived from the original 1:10,000,000 paper map (Brown et al. 1997)

   Permafrost, or permanently frozen ground, is ground (soil, sediment, or rock) 
   that remains at or below 0°C for at least two years (Permafrost Subcommittee, 
   1988). It occurs both on land and beneath offshore arctic continental shelves, 
   and underlies about 22 percent of the Earth's land surface.

   For more information on the creation of the original map, see Heginbottom et 
   al. (1993). The original paper map also includes information on the relative 
   abundance of ice wedges, massive ice bodies and Pingos, ranges of permafrost 
   temperature and thickness (Brown et al. 1997).

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/virtual_globes/
   Group: Description

      NSIDC offers some of our data in the form of images. We have created Google 
      Earth™ files that enable you to overlay these and other data-based images on a 
      virtual globe.

   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/virtual_globes/
   Description: View NSIDC Data on Virtual Globes: Google Earth
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/atlas/
   Description: Atlas of the Cryosphere
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/gis/
   Description: GIS Data and Resources at NSIDC
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2014-04-22
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-04-22
Group: DIF_Revision_History

   This data set was created because a version 2 accidentally got created and in 
   order to get rid of it, and put it to sleep, we need this version 1 to take 
   its place.


End_Group