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Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions

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Entry ID

GGD318

Summary

The Circum-Arctic permafrost and ground ice map is available via ftp in ESRI Shapefile format and Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) format. See the Format section for an explanation of the files provided via FTP.

The circumpolar permafrost and ground ice data contribute to a unified international data set that depicts the distribution and properties of permafrost and ground ice in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 90°N). The re-gridded data set shows discontinuous, sporadic, or isolated permafrost boundaries. Permafrost extent is estimated in percent area (90-100 percent, 50-90 percent, 10-50 percent, <10 percent, and no permafrost). Relative abundance of ground ice in the upper 20 m is estimated in percent volume (>20 percent, 10-20 percent, <10 percent, and 0 percent). The data set also contains the location of subsea and relict permafrost. the gridded data are gridded at 12.5 km, 25 km, and 0.5 degree resolution. The shapefiles were derived from the original 1:10,000,000 paper map (Brown et al. 1997)

Permafrost, or permanently frozen ground, is ground (soil, sediment, or rock) that remains at or below 0°C for at least two years (Permafrost Subcommittee, 1988). It occurs both on land and beneath offshore arctic continental shelves, and underlies about 22 percent of the Earth's land surface.

For more information on the creation of the original map, see Heginbottom et al. (1993). The original paper map also includes information on the relative abundance of ice wedges, massive ice bodies and Pingos, ranges of permafrost temperature and thickness (Brown et al. 1997).

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 90°     S: 28°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

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Browse image of Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions.


Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Brown, J., O. Ferrians, J. A. Heginbottom, and E. Melnikov.
Dataset Title: Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions
Dataset Release Date: 2002-02-01
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Version: 2
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd318.html

Location Keywords

  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION POLAR CIRCUMPOLAR

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Ground Ice
  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Permafrost
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Ground Ice
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Permafrost

Ancillary Keywords

  • Boreholes
  • Continuous Permafrost
  • Discontinuous Permafrost
  • Mapping
  • Permafrost Extent

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Geoscientific Information
  • Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Frozen Ground Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/

Data Center Personnel

Name: FGDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 24 MB
Distribution Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)

Personnel

J. Alan Heginbottom
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 613 992-7813
Fax: 1 613 992-2468
Email: heginbottom@gsc.emr.ca
Contact Address:

  • Natural Resources Canada
  • Terrain Science Division
  • 601 Booth Street

City: Ottawa
Province or State: Ontario
Postal Code: K1A 0E8
Country: Canada

J. Alan Heginbottom
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 613 992-7813
Fax: 1 613 992-2468
Email: heginbottom@gsc.emr.ca
Contact Address:

  • Natural Resources Canada
  • Terrain Science Division
  • 601 Booth Street

City: Ottawa
Province or State: Ontario
Postal Code: K1A 0E8
Country: Canada

Jerry Brown
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 508 457-4982
Fax: 1 508 457-4982
Email: jerrybrown@igc.apc.org
Contact Address:

  • International Permafrost Association
  • PO Box 7

City: Woods Hole
Province or State: MA
Postal Code: 02543
Country: USA

Jerry Brown
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 508 457-4982
Fax: 1 508 457-4982
Email: jerrybrown@igc.apc.org
Contact Address:

  • International Permafrost Association
  • PO Box 7

City: Woods Hole
Province or State: MA
Postal Code: 02543
Country: USA

Oscar Ferrians
Role: INVESTIGATOR

E.S. Melnikov
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 7-095-135-9828
Fax: 7-095-135-6582
Email: emelnikov@mtu-net.ru
Contact Address:

  • Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
  • Laboratory of Geocryological Prediction and Informatics of Earth Cryosphere Inst
  • Vavilov Str. 30/6-74a

City: Moscow
Postal Code: GSP-1, 119
Country: Russia

E.S. Melnikov
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 7-095-135-9828
Fax: 7-095-135-6582
Email: emelnikov@mtu-net.ru
Contact Address:

  • Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
  • Laboratory of Geocryological Prediction and Informatics of Earth Cryosphere Inst
  • Vavilov Str. 30/6-74a

City: Moscow
Postal Code: GSP-1, 119
Country: Russia

Related URL

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VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Atlas of the Cryosphere

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GIS Data and Resources at NSIDC

Reference

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Baranov, I. Ya. 1959. Geographical distribution of seasonally frozen ground and permafrost. National Research Council of Canada, Technical Translation No.1121, Ottawa.

Baranov, I. Ya., ed. 1965. Principles of geocryological zonation of the permafrost region. Nauka, Moscow, 152 pp. (Russian).

Baranov, I. Ya. 1982. Geocryological map of the USSR. Main Department for Geodesy and Cartography (GUGK), Moscow, scale 1:7,500,000.

Baulin., V.V., ed. 1982. Map of geocryological regions of the West Siberian Plain, USSR Ministry of Geology, VSEGINGEO, scale 1:1,500,000, 4 sheets (Russian).

Black, R.F. 1954. Permafrost -- a review. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 65, pp. 839-856.

Bliss, L.C. 1979. Vegetation and revegetation within permafrost terrain. in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Permafrost. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 2, pp. 31-50.

Bostock, H.S. 1970. Physiographic regions of Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1254A, scale 1:5,000,000.

Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov, eds. 1997. Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey in Cooperation with the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources. Circum-Pacific Map Series CP-45, scale 1:10,000,000, 1 sheet.

Brown, R.J.E. 1967. Permafrost in Canada. National Research Council of Canada, Publication 9769, and Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1246A, Ottawa, scale 1:7,603,200.

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Crawford, C.B., and G.H. Johnston. 1971. Construction on permafrost. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 236-251. Ershov, E.D., ed. 1988,1989. Geocryology of the USSR. Nauka, Moscow, 5 volumes(Russian).

Ferrians ,O.J., Jr. 1965. Permafrost map of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations, Map I-445, scale 1:2,500,000.

Fotiev, S.M. 1978. Effect of long-term cryometamorphism of earth materials on the formation of ground water. in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Permafrost, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp. 181-187.

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Heginbottom, J.A. 1984. The mapping of permafrost. Canadian Geographer, Vol. XXVIII, pp. 78-83.

Heginbottom, J.A., and L.K. Radburn. 1992. Permafrost and ground ice conditions of Northwestern Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1691A, scale 1:1,000,000.

Heginbottom, J.A., and M-A. Dubreuil. 1993. A new permafrost and ground ice map for the National Atlas of Canada. in Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, vol. 1, pp. 255-260.

Heginbottom, J.A., and M-A. Dubreuil. (1995) Canada -- Permafrost. National Atlas of Canada, 5th edition, scale 1:7,500,000, Plate 2.1 (MCR 4177).

Hughes, O.L. 1969. Distribution of open system pingos in central Yukon Territory with respect to glacial limits. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Paper 69-34, 8 pp.

Hughes, T. 1973. Glacial permafrost and Pleistocene ice ages. in Permafrost -- the North American Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 213-223.

Judge, A.S. 1973. Deep temperature observations in the Canadian north. in Permafrost -- the North American Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 35-40.

Kudryavtsev, V.A., K.A. Kondrat'eva, and A.G. Gavrilov. 1978. Geocryological map of the USSR. General Permafrost Studies; Materials for the Third International Conference on Permafrost. Nauka, Novosibirsk, scale 1:2,500,000 (Russian).

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Mackay, J.R. and S.R. Dallimore. 1992. Massive ice of the Tuktoyaktuk area, western Arctic coast, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 1235-1249.

Melnikov, E.S. 1988. Natural geosystems of the plain cryolithozones. in Permafrost, Fifth International Conference, Proceedings. Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, Norway, vol. 1, pp. 208-212.

Melnikov, P.I. 1966. Geocryological map, Yakustkoi, A.S.S.R. Akademia Nauk SSSR, Moscow, scale 1:5,000,000 (Russian).

Nikiforoff, C. 1928. The perpetually frozen subsoil of Siberia. Soil Science, Vol. 26, pp. 61-81. Pewe, T.L. 1982. Geologic hazards of the Fairbanks area. Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Special Report 15, 109 pp.

Pewe, T.L. 1983. Alpine permafrost in the contiguous United States: a review. Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 15, pp. 145-156.

Popov, A.I., S.P. Kachurin, and N.A. Grave. 1966. Features of the development of frozen geomorphology in northern Eurasia. in Proceedings -- Permafrost International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., NRC Publication 1287, pp. 481-487.

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Rapp, A., and L. Annersten. 1969. Permafrost and tundra polygons in northern Sweden. in The Periglacial Environment, T.L. Pewe, ed., McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, pp. 65-91.

Shumskiy, P.A, and B.I. Vtyurin. 1966. Underground ice. in Proceedings -- Permafrost International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. NRC Publication 1287, pp. 108-113.

Shi Yafeng and Mi Disheng, eds. 1988. Map of snow, ice and frozen ground in China. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, Academia Sinica, scale 1:4,000,000, 2 sheets.

Sodnom, N., and A.L. Yanshin, eds. 1990. Geocryology and Geocryological zonation. National Atlas of Mongolia, GUGK, Ulan Bator / Moscow, Plates 40 and 41, scale 1:4,500,000, 1:12,000,000.

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Wahrhaftig, C. 1965. Physiographic divisions of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 482, 52 pp.

Washburn, A.L. 1980. Geocryology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Halstead Press.

Weidick, A. 1968. Observations on some Holocene glacier fluctuations in West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 165(6), 202 pp. Williams, R.B.G. 1969. Permafrost and temperature conditions in England during the last glacial period in The Periglacial Environment. Edited by T.L. Pewe. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

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Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2002-02-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-03-19

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