Entry_ID: GGD294
Entry_Title: Active layer and borehole temperatures from La Foppa rock glaciers, Val Vallaccia, Central Italian Alps
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   Last_Name: Unknown
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Centro Nivometeorologico Regione Lombardia
      Address: Via Milano
      City: Bormio (SO)
      Country: Italy
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mauro
   Last_Name: Guglielmin
   Email: mauro.guglielmin@uninsubria.it
   Phone: 39 2 67655152 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Insubria University
      City: Varese
      Postal_Code: 21110
      Country: Italy
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Keyword: Boreholes
Keyword: BTS Measurements
Keyword: Continuous Permafrost
Keyword: Discontinuous Permafrost
Keyword: Meteorology
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Keyword: Soil Temperature
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1993-01-01
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 46.5
   Northernmost_Latitude: 46.5
   Westernmost_Longitude: 10
   Easternmost_Longitude: 10
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
   Location_Subregion1: SOUTHERN EUROPE
   Location_Subregion2: ITALY
   Detailed_Location: VAL VALLACCIA, CENTRAL ITALIAN ALPS, ITALY
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Format: Microsoft Excel
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Calderoni, G., Guglielmin, M., Lozej, A., Tellini, C. 1993. Researches on rock 
   glaciers in the Italian Central Alps (Valtellina, Sondrio, Italia). 
   International Conference on Permafrost, VI, Beijing. Proceedings, vol. 1, p. 
   72-77.

   Cannone, N., Guglielmi, M, Smiraglia, C. (1995): Rapporti tra vegetazione e 
   permafrost discontinuo in ambiente alpino. Val Vallaccia (Livigno, Sondrio). 
   Rivista Geografica Italiana, 102, 91-111.

   Guglielmin, M. (1997): Periglacial Phenomena, permafrost distribution and 
   glacial evolution in Foscagno area, Livigno (SO), Italy, In IV Intern. 
   Conference on Geomorphology, Italy, 1997 -Guide for the excursion- Mountain 
   permafrostand slope stability in the periglacial belt of the Alps', Suppl. 
   Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat. 193, 195-199.

    Guglielmin, M. con contributi di A. Notarpietro (1997) Il Permafrost Alpino. 
   Concetti, morfologia e metodi di individuazione (con tre indagini 
   esemplificative in Alta Valtellina). Quaderni di Geodinamica alpina e 
   Quaternaria, CNR, 5, 117 pp.

   Guglielmi, M. (1989): I rock glacier del Passo del Foscagno (Alta Valtellina, 
   Sondrio). Natura Bresciana, 26, 35-47.

   Guglielmin, M., Lozej, A., Tellini, C. 1994. Permafrost distribution and rock 
   glaciers in the Livigno area (Northern Italy). Permafrost and Periglacial 
   Processes, 5, p. 1-12.

   Guglielmin, M. and Tellini, C. (1995) Relazioni tra permafrost alpino e 
   copertura nevosa: risultati preliminari (area del Foscagno, Sondrio, Italia). 
   Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat. 18, 25-29.

   Guglielmin, M., Rossettin G. and Tellini, C. (1997) Perg?lisol alpin et 
   variations climatiques dans les Alpes Centrales (valtellina, Italie), IV 
   Intern. Conf. On Geomorphology, Abstract, Suppl. Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., III, 
   1, 192, Submitted to Arctic and Alpine Research.

    Guglielmin, M., Smiraglia, C. and Cannone, N. (1997) The rock glaciers of the 
   Lombardy Alps (Italy) as indicators of mountain permafrost, IV Intern. Conf. 
   On Geomorphology, Abstract, Suppl. Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., III, 1, 193, 
   Submitted to Geomorphology.

   
Guglielmin, M. and Tellini, C. (1994): Rilevamento del permafrost con il 
   metodo BTS (Bottom Temperature of the Winter Snow Cover) nell'alta Valtellina 
   (Sondrio, ITALIA).- Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., 17, 47-54.

    Guglielmin, M. and Tellini, C. (1993): First example of permafrost mapping 
   with BTS in the Italian Alps (Livigno, Sondrio, Italy). Acta Naturalia, 29, 
   1/2, 39-46.

   Guglielmin, M. and C. Tellini. 1992. Contributo alla conoacenza dei rock 
   glaciers delle Alpi Italiane. I rock glaciers del Livignasco (Alta Valtellina, 
   Sondrio). Riv. Geogr. It., 99, p. 395-414.

   Lozej, A. and Guglielmin, M. 1992. Prospezioni geoelettriche sul rock glacier 
   de 'La Foppa', Livigno, Sondrio (Italia). GEAM- Boll. Ass. Min. Subalp., XXIV, 
   4, dicembre, p. 373-382.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The La Foppa site is a glacial cirque located in the upper part of the Val 
   Vallaccia, near Livigno, in the Italian Central Alps. The La Foppa cirque is 
   characterized by five rock glaciers, of which four are active and one is of 
   uncertain activity or is inactive. These rock glaciers, especially the two 
   largest, named La Foppa I and La Foppa II, have been the subject of 
   geophysical investigations (Lozej and Guglielmin, 1992; Guglielmin et al., 
   1994; Guglielmin 1997) including BTS measurements (bottom temperature of snow; 
   more than 70 measurements between 1990 and 1993) and STG measurements (shallow 
   temperature of ground in summer) (Calderoni et al. 1993; Guglielmin and 
   Tellini 1992, 1994; Guglielmin 1997). The distribution of BTS and STG 
   measurements indicate that above 2800 asl  the permafrost is continuous 
   whereas below this elevation it is constrained inside the rock glaciers, where 
   it is not continuous.

   Three boreholes have been established. One is in the frontal part of La Foppa 
   I where the BTS values are always lower than -3 degrees C, and where the 
   active layer detected with vertical electrical soundings (V.E.S.) ranges from 
   0.8 to 2.7 meters. The second borehole is in the central part of La Foppa I, 
   where the BTS values range between -0.5 and  -2.1 degrees C, and the V.E.S. 
   indicate an active layer of 3 - 5.5 meters thick.  The third borehole is 
   located on the moraine ridge (of Late Glacial age) at 10 meters of the lateral 
   slope of La Foppa I that overlaps the moraine ridge. Here the BTS values and 
   V.E.S. point out the absence of permafrost. Near the third borehole there is a 
   meteorological station that measures air temperature at 4 meters above the 
   ground, snow cover, snow temperature every 20 cm up to 420 cm, precipitation, 
   wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and soil 
   temperature at 2 and 30 cm depth. Borehole data are recorded on data loggers. 
   A sample of the data is presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM. In this data 
   file, data values must be divided by 10 to obtain the correct value.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2003-06-18
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-09-18
DIF_Revision_History: added dist. format