Entry_ID: GGD293
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers Gruben, Muragl and Murtel, Switzerland: Area-wide flow fields
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Kaeaeb, A
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers Gruben, Muragl and Murtel, Switzerland: Area-wide flow fields
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd293.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Andreas
   Last_Name: Kaeaeb
   Email: kaeaeb@geo.unizh.ch
   Phone: 41 1 6355146 
   Fax:  41 1 635 6848 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Zurich-Irchel
      Address: Department of Geography, Physical Geography Division
      Address: Winterthurerstr. 190
      City: Zurich
      Postal_Code: CH-8057
      Country: Switzerland
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
   Detailed_Variable: Mountain Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
   Detailed_Variable: Mountain Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Keyword: Permafrost Properties
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Keyword: Slope Processes
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1970-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1994-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 46.169
   Northernmost_Latitude: 46.506
   Westernmost_Longitude: 7.964
   Easternmost_Longitude: 9.933
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
   Location_Subregion1: WESTERN EUROPE
   Location_Subregion2: SWITZERLAND
   Detailed_Location: SAAS VALLEY, VALAIS ALPS; UPPER ENGADINE, SWITZERLAND
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Summary

   Besides their thermal and mechanical properties, rock glaciers are essentially 
   defined by their kinematics. Knowledge of the permafrost flow field provides 
   important information about the origin, morphology, development, dynamics and 
   internal structure of creeping mountain permafrost. Monitoring permafrost 
   behavior helps detecting climate signals.

   Aerial photogrammetry was used for determining digital terrain models (DTM) 
   with high resolution. The differences of multitemporal DTMs of a rock glacier 
   provide the vertical changes of the permafrost surface. Horizontal surface 
   displacements were obtained by simultaneously comparing two aerial photographs 
   taken at different times and from different positions (Kaeaeb 1996a,b; Kaeaeb 
   et al.1998). Repeated overridings by the nearby glacier affected the upper 
   part of the Gruben rock glacier, Wallis. Compared to the lower, periglacial 
   part of the rock glacier the higher surface lowering rates of the 
   debris-covered dead ice remains indicate the dead ice being out of 
   equilibrium. Due to different internal structure and different slopes, 
   horizontal surface velocities show different creep directions as well as 
   different creep rates. The rock glacier advances by about 12 cm/a. A 25-year 
   time series of photogrammetrical monitoring (1970-1995) documents the temporal 
   variations of surface kinematics of the rock glacier (Kaeaeb et al. 1998a).  
   Surface kinematics of Muragl rock glacier (Upper Engadin) over the period from 
   1981 to 1994 reveal this rock glacier to be a complex system of several 
   individual streams. Changes in elevation show a pattern of zones of surface 
   heave and subsidence in the range of +- 10 cm/a. The rock glacier advances by 
   about 5 cm/a (Kaeaeb 1998). The velocity field 1987-1996 at the surface of 
   Murtel rock glacier, Upper Engadin, points to two dynamically different parts 
   of the creeping permafrost-- (1) high activity and transverse ridges in the 
   inner part and (2) lower activity at the left and right margins. The ridges 
   are advected down stream with a velocity approximately equal to the surface 
   velocity. Stream lines can be interpolated from the surface velocity field. 
   The curvature of the isochrones on Murtel rock glacier is similar to the 
   curvature of the transverse ridges, which suggests slow changes in the flow 
   field (Kaeaeb 1998, Kaeaeb et al. 1998b). These data are presented on the CAPS 
   Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-29
DIF_Revision_History: added creator/pub info