Entry_ID: GGD290
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers, Entremont, Valais, Switzerland
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Delaloye, R, E. Reynard, and L.Wenker
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers, Entremont, Valais, Switzerland
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd290.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Reynald
   Last_Name: Delaloye
   Email: Reynald.Delaloye@unifr.ch
   Phone: 41 26 300 90 21 
   Phone: 41 26 300 90 10 
   Fax:  41 26 300 97 46 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Fribourg
      Address: Department of Geosciences
      Address: Perolles
      City: Fribourg
      Postal_Code: CH-1700
      Country: Switzerland
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Sonia
   Last_Name: Morand
   Phone: 41 26 3009010 
   Fax:  41 26 3009746 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Fribourg
      Address: Institute of Geography
      City: Fribourg
      Postal_Code: CH-1700
      Country: Switzerland
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Keyword: BTS Measurements
Keyword: Field Investigations
Keyword: Geophysics
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1995-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1997-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 45.85
   Northernmost_Latitude: 46.083
   Westernmost_Longitude: 7.083
   Easternmost_Longitude: 7.317
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
   Location_Subregion1: WESTERN EUROPE
   Location_Subregion2: SWITZERLAND
   Detailed_Location: ENTREMONT, CENTRAL AND WESTERN ALPS, VALAIS, SWITZERLAND
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Entremont area is 300 square km wide and located in the western part of 
   the Swiss Alps between the Mont-Blanc Massif and the Valaisian Alps, slightly 
   north of the main crest of the alpine range. Altitude varies between 4313 m 
   above see level (asl) at the top of the Grand-Combin and 714 m asl for the 
   outlet of the valleys system. The geological composition is essentially 
   dominated by metamorphic rocks (gneiss, shale, quartzite), however some 
   sedimentary layers (limestone, dolomite) are inserted. The mean annual air 
   temperature is about 0 C at 2300 m asl and annual precipitation among ranges 
   between 1000 and 1500 mm at 2000 m asl with a maximum value of about 2000 mm 
   on the alpine crest (Grand-St-Bernard pass). Equilibrium line of glaciers is 
   over 3000 m asl in the north-facing slopes, the timberline is at about 2100 m 
   asl and permafrost creeping features exist between 2000 and 3000 m asl, what 
   results in a great variety of mountain and morphological landscapes.

   Aerial photographs analyses and field morphological observations have been 
   performed during summer 1995 in order to inventory and map (1 to 25000) 321 
   well-developed to embryonic rock glaciers and protalus lobes (coexisting 
   features have been separated) of total area 10.4 square. km. Rock glacier 
   activity classification results from interpretation of both geomorphological 
   and environmental signs. Some geophysics (BTS measurements and DC resistivity 
   soundings) have been performed between 1995 and 1997 on a few rock glaciers in 
   order to confirm the initial interpretation. Data described in this file on 
   the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998, are-- 1. Location (X, Y)-- Swiss 
   coordinates near the center of the feature. 2. Front elevation (Z)-- Elevation 
   (m a.s.l.) at the foot of the front (accuracy: 10 m). 3. Length-- Maximal 
   distance (m) between front and roots (accuracy: 10 - 20%). 4. Width-- Mean 
   width (m) of the feature (accuracy: 10%).  5. Orientation-- Global exposition 
   of the rock glacier. 6. Activity-- Interpretation by field indicators 
   observation, only in a few cases by geophysics. 7. Surface (ha)-- Calculated 
   by 1 to 25,000 numerical mapping (accuracy: 5 - 10%). 8. Origin-- Talus or 
   moraine (debris) derived rock glacier ?

   Other information such as lithology, spring temperature, vegetation cover, 
   inclination, roots elevation are partly available, but not described in the 
   present data set.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-29
DIF_Revision_History: added creator / publisher info